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COTTON MILL PROCESSES 
AND CALCULATIONS. 



An Elementary Text Book for the Use of Textile 
Schools and for Home Study. 



ILLUSTRATED THROUGHOUT WITH ORIGINAL DRAWINGS. 



By D. A; TOMPKINS. 



CHARLOTTE, N. C. 

PUBI^ISHED BY THE AUTHOR. 

1899. 

L. 



t 



A 



^O 






2HBfi2 



Copyright 1899 

BY 

D. A. Tompkins. 



TVs,'OCOP!t;o K£CCIVcD. 




Presses Observer Printing House, Charlotte, N. C. 






preface* 

In the practice of my profession, Engineering, I have 
designed and had charge of the construction of a number 
of cotton mills in the Southern part of the United States 
The organization of the necessary force of employees to 
operate these mills has involved the "breaking in" of large 
numbers of. people who liad not been before accustomed to 
cotton mill work; as well as the advancing of others into 
more responsible places lequiring fuller knowledge and 
better skill. 

These conditions have brought to me many inquiries 
from young men and some from young women for a book 
describing the machines and the processes used in the 
manufacture of cotton mto yarn, sheetings, shirtings, 
drills, plaids and ginghams. 

It has been attempted in this volume to give a descrip- 
tion of the machines, and exhibit their various functions; 
also to give rules and formulas for making the calculations, 
in such a simple way, that they may be followed out by any 
person of ordinary intelligence, and with only a limited 
common school education 

To the student and apprentice, for whom this book is 
intended, it might not be amiss to say that skill in- opera- 
ting machines, and in keeping a manufacturing process 
well balanced throughout, cannot be acquired by reading 
any book. 

Both knowledge and skill are necessary in the produc- 
tion of good music. .So, in the manufacture of cotton, is 
both knowledge and skill equally necessary to get the best 
results. 

The best success will not come to the young man who 
acquires the fullest knowledge, and omits the practice 
necessary to make him skillful. 

Neither will it come to the one who works longest and 
hardest, and never studies. 



IV 

But rather to the one who with discretion and energy 
devotes reasonable time to the acquisition of both knowl- 
edge and skill. 

It is the purpose of the Author to revise and enlarge this 
book in a future edition. It will be regarded as a favor if 
those engaged in or interested in the subject of cotton 
manufacture will call attention to errors, and make sugges- 
tions as to any way in which the next edition may 1:te made 
of better service to the cotton mill worker. 



Contents* 

CHAPTER I. 

Page. 

INTRODUCTION i 

Cotton Classification. Mill Processes. Draft 
Defined. 

CHAPTER II. 

THE PICKER ROOM 7 

Mixing. Opening-. Lapping. 

CPIAPTER HI. 

CARDING 28 

Revolving Top Flat Card. VVellman Card. Card 
Clothing. Double Carding. 

CHAPTER IV. 

DRAWING 51 

Stop Motions. Leather Covered Top Rolls. 
Metallic Top Rolls. Shell Rolls. 

CHAPTER V. 

RAILWAY HEADS 70 

Eveners. R.ailway Troughs. Sliver from Cans. 

CHAPTER VI. 

HANKS AND NUMBERS 78 

Definitions. Practical Methods. 

CHAPTER VII. 

SLUBBING AND ROVING 83 

Bobbin Lead. Elyer Lead. Differentials. Taper. 
Lay. Short Methods. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

RING SPINNING 133 

Bobbins. Warp Winding. Filling Winding. 
Combination Frames. Speeds. Spindles. Rings, 
Travelers, Separators. Uneven Yarn, 



VI 



CHAPTER IX. 

MULE SPINNING 165 

Headstock. Soft Yarn. 

CHAPTER X. 
PREPARATION OF YARN FOR WEAVING. . . 172 
Spooler. Warper. Slasher. Drawing In. 
Colored Work. 

CHAPTER XI. 

WEAVING 208 

Plain Work. Tape Selvage. Reedy Cloth. Auto- 
matic Looms. Twill Work. Dobby Looms. 
Jacquards. Box Looms. Designing. Laying 
Out Looms. 

CHAPTER XII. 

LOOM SUPPLIES 239 

Strapping. Shuttles. Temples. Reeds. Har- 
ness. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

THE CLOTH ROOM 247 

Sewing Machine. Brusher. Shearer. Calender. 
Inspector. Folder. Stamping. BaHng. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

PREPARATION OF YARN FOR MARKET 263 

Twisting. Chain VVarping. Beam Warping. 
Reeling. Cone and Tube Winding. 

CHAPTER XV. 

ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT 283 

Range of Drafts. Two Ply Yarn. Cloth. Organ- 
ization Sheet. Equipment Sheet. 

APPENDIX. 
TABLES. RECIPES, RULES -295 



IFntrobuction. 

COMMERCIAL i. Upland cotton, such as is used 

COTTON BALES, in the average Southern mill, is the 
raw material herein discussed. It 
usually arrives at the mill just as it comes from the plan- 
tation or custom gin house, in bales varying somewhat 
in size but averaging about 30 x 40 x 58 inches, and 
weighing from 400 to 600 pounds. There is at 
present no standard size or weight, but there is a 
movement on foot tO' induce all ginners to make their 
presses of uniform size, viz: 24 inches wide and 54 
inches long. This still leaves one dimension undeter- 
mined, as this one depends upon how much cotton 
is piit into the press, and how hard the press is run 
down. No standard weight is contemplated, but it is the 
intention to have bales weigh as nearly 500 pounds gross 
as is practicable. Cotton is sold throughout the United 
States by the gross weight. Bagging and ties on a bale 
of cotton weigh 25 to 30 pounds, so that there is a loss in 
tare of about 6 per cent, on bales of 400 to 500 pounds. 
If the bales are lighter, the per cent, of loss is greater. 
And, since the final worth of the cotton to the mill is 
based on its net weight, a restriction is placed by the trade 
as to minimum weight of a bale. Nothing under 350 
pounds gross is considered technically a "bale," and there 
are local rules among cotton buyers prescribing a reduc- 
tion in price per pound for bales under 350 pounds. A 
general rule is that for bales under 300 pounds one cent 
per pound is deducted from the standard price; for bales 
300 to 350, one-half cent per pound. General cognizance 
is also taken of the average weights. If there are too 
many Hght weight bales (even above 350 pounds) in a 
lot of cotton, the buyer will not pay as much as for bale;-, 
averaging about 500 pounds. 



2 

COMPRESSED 2. For shipment by railroad or steam- 
COTTON. ship for any great distance, cotton is 

compressed by specially heavy presses 
at central shipping points, so that the bales occupy only 
about lialf as much space as formerly. 

Recently the round bale is being much discussed, but it 
is only in the experimental stage. The idea is to build 
ginneries where cotton may be ginned and put up on the 
premises in a dense round bale, wholly protected by bag- 
ging, and not requiring any ties. In this form it requires 
no further compressing, as it occupies in shipping much 
less space than even the standard compressed bale. On 
arrival at the mill, the cotton is supposed to unroll in a 
sheet and to be fed direct into the machinery. 

Neither the compressed bale nor the round bale are, as 
yet, a factor in the Southern cotton mill, so that here the 
cotton will be considered as arriving at the mill in the un- 
compressed state. The only difference is that the more 
compressed the cotton the longer time and greater care 
is necessary in mixing and allowing fibres to regain their 
original condition. 



CLASSIFICATION. 3. The quality of cotton when 

bought in the market is expressed 

in the following classification, beginning with the 



highest. 



Quarter Grade. Half Grade. Three-Quarters. Full Grade. 

FAIR. 
Barely Fair, 

Strict Middling Fair, 

Fully Middling Fair, 

MIDDLING FAIR. 
Barely Middling Fair, 

Strict Good Middling, 

Fully Good Middling, 

GOOD MIDDLING. 
Barely Good Middling, 

Strict MiddHng, 

Fully Middling, 

MIDDLING. 
Barely Middling, 

Strict Low Middling, 

Fully Low Middling, 

LOW MIDDLING. 
Barely Low Middling, 

Strict Good Ordinary, 

Fully Good Ordinary, 

GOOD ORDINARY. 
Barely Good Ordinary, 

Strict Ordinary, 

Fully Ordinary, 

ORDINARY. 

The above classification expresses the minutest differ- 
ences recognized in the most critical markets, but in most 
of the country markets quarter grades are not recognized. 
The discrimination, in fact, of quarter grades is an accom- 
plishment not possessed by many cotton buyers, though 



the half grades are readily distinguishable by good buy- 
ers. The classification is based on length of staple, color 
and freedom from leaf, dirt or other foreign matter. It is 
a matter of individual judgment, and cannot be reduced 
to rule. It is difficult, even, to keep type samples which 
will represent cotton grades, because of the bleaching ef- 
fect of light on the samples. 

The first consideration in buying cotton for mill con- 
sumption is maintaining uniformity of grade. This is the 
first step toward turning out goods of uniform quality. 
It is always desirable that purchasers of the mill products 
may feel sure of obtaining on every order exactly the 
same grade of goods. 

The great staple goods of the Southern mill is brown 
sheetings, about 4 yards per pound. For this, "middling" 
cotton is generally used. "Strictly middling" and "good 
middling" are sometimes bought for finer goods. 

PROCESSES. 4. The processes through which 
cotton must pass in the mill for 
makinp; cloth are: 

Mixing, 

Opening, 

Lapping, 

Carding, 

Drawing, 

Slubbing. 

Roving, y <" 

Spinning, ^ 

Spooling, 

Warping,/ 

Slashing, 

Drawing In, 

Weaving. 

Finishing. 



DRAFT. — Defined. 5. All processes, up to and in- 
cluding spinning, involve, among 
other things, drawing out or attenuating the cotton. 
The object is to take a mass of cotton like a bale, 
and by successive reductions, finally draw it out 
into a long thread. It may be considered that 
a bale of cotton (about i^ yards long, weigh- 
ing 500 pounds) weighs 333 pounds per yard. 
It is first passed through the picker room, where it 
emerges in a sheet weighing less than one pound per yard. 
The card reduces it to about i-ioo of a pound per yard, 
and so on through the various machines, until when the 
yarn is produced, it may require several miles to weigh a 
pound. 

Each machine must do its proportionate part in the 
drawing. The amount that it does is called its "draft." 
If a machine receives stock weighing 10 ounces per yard 
and delivers stock weighing i ounce per yard, the ma- 
chine is said to have a "draft" of 10. THE DRAFT OF 
A MACHINE, then, may be defined as THE QUO- 
TIENT OBTAINED BY 'dividing THE WeFgHT 
PER YARD OF STOCK RECEIVED BY WEIGHT 
PER YARD OF STOCK DELIVERED. 

The same result may be arrived at, if more convenient, 
by dividing the weight of any number of yards (say 120) 
received by the weight of the same numl^er of yards de- . 
livered, or by dividing the number of yards delivered by 
the number of yards received in a given time. There are 
several ways of re-stating the same formula, which are re- 
viewed at length in another chapter. 

The draft which each machine must have depends upon 
the fineness of the yarn to be produced. The arrange- 
ment and tabulation of drafts throughout the mill for 
production of any particular goods is called its "organiza- 
tion." 



CHAPTER II. 

ITbe picker 1Room. 

MIXING. 6. In the South the subject of mixmg cotton 
on the floor before putting through the open- 
ing machines is of not so much importance as in coun- 
tries where cotton must be brought to the mih from great 
distances, coming from various locaHties, and being- hi 
compressed bales. In this latter case it is necessary for 
the cotton to lie in the mixing pile on the floor, in order 
to expand to its original condition. The mixing itself is 
more necessary in that case, because each different bale 
may represent some difference of quahtv, either in color 
or staple. In order for the product to approach uniform- 
ity therefore, the larger the mixing the better. In Fro-. 
hsh mills, m particular, there are elaborate provisions for 
mixing large quantities, and there the mixing of different 
grades of cotton at different prices to produce goods at 
a certain cost becomes a fine art. 

_ Mixing large quantities of loose cotton on the floor is 
m any case, theoretically desirable, because, even where 
cotton comes to the mill from the immediate neighbor- 
hood, there are always some slight differences in quality, 
no matter how carefully bought. These would be mosti; 
due o different degrees of care in ginning. Another ad- 
vantage also results m the equahzation of moisture that 

wav in V . k'-i ?'" '''°""' °^ '^' universally careless 
way m which baled cotton is handled before reaching the 
mill some bales may stand in the weather a week or two 

rle a'; tT '''n ' "^"T^" ^" '^'' "^^' ^^e bale may ar- 
nerfeftl 1 "^^\f ^^^^^^^ '^^ wet, while another would be 
perfectly dry. If the two were intimatelv mixed the re- 
sul might work very well. But there is a practLl im t 

Thiffs thTlM''^" '''' "^^^ ^^ -^-^ '' -- time. 
This IS the limited room which can be spared for the pur- 



pose, and the danger from tire spreading in the loose cot- 
ton. It is usual to mix enough at one time to run the 
mill from two to six days, according to space available, 
the more the better. 

When cotton arrives at the mill the number of bales to 
be mixed are laid on edge, the ties and bagging taken ofif. 
and a large handful or sheet of cotton is taken from one 
bale after another by hand, and thrown into the mixing 
bin, so that the pile is a thorough average of all the bales. 

In the operation of the mill there is some stock wasted 
at each of the processes. This waste is carefully kept ui 
boxes or bags, and such as is good enough is returned to 
the picker room for mixing with new stock and re-work- 
ing. Waste from the pickers themselves consists mostly 
of motes and trash that cannot be again worked. This 
waste is sold. Loose cotton which may be wasted 
throughout the mill is very easily mixed and re-worked, 
but stock in which some twist has been introduced is 
more difficult to handle. In any case, the waste must be 
carefully scattered through the pile, so that it may not 
introduce important differences in the stock. In a large 
mill there is always a machine for working over the waste 
and delivering it in a perfect fleece for mixing. Such ma- 
chines are variously called "waste pickers," "waste open- 
ers." "waste cleaners," "thread extractors," etc. The 
best term, in accordance with the name given cotton pre- 
parers in general, is "waste picker." 

7. There are special tools in the market for removing 
cotton ties from the bale, but the most common tool is 
a small, short crow bar. The bar is stuck under the tie 
near the buckle, and with a twist, the tie may be easily 
pulled out of buckle and taken off. Great care must be 
taken not to lose the small iron buckles in the loose cot- 
ton, as they would be disastrous to the machinery. A 
good plan is to count the buckles before removing them, 
and then count the number when the work is all done. A 
box for holding these buckles should be provided in the 
room. The ties and bagging should be carried out at once 



9 

to the waste house. There the ties should be straightened 
out and scrubbed with a brick to remove dirt and adhering 
cotton. They may be doubled once and put up in bun- 
dles of 30, fastened together with wire or iron bands, and 
having strung on one tie the whole 30 buckles. This is the 
usual shape in which new ties are sold. If old ties ar-s 
carefully cleaned and bundled, and finally dipped in hot 
coal tar, they may be sold for about the price of new ties. 
The bagging when removed is always in bad condition, 
and it is not possible to put it in good shape to sell, ex- 
cept to local trade. It is full of small bits of Hnt, is often 
discolored with clay and with many marks, and it is al- 
ways cut in several places, where samples have been 
drawn. It is usually rolled up, enough for five bales in a 
roll, and sold to neighboring ginners. . . 

OPENING. 8. Strictly speaking, the bale is "opened" 
when the ties and bagging are removed from 
the bale, and the cotton is torn off, but technically the 
"opener" is the first machine into which the cotton is fed, 
"and that process is known as "opening" or "picking." 
The term "picker" is a general term comprising all the 
beater machines, known individually as "openers" and as 
"lappers." The English use the word "scutcher" in place 
of "picker." They also call this machinery in general 
"blowing room machinery," from the fact that the ma- 
chines all have fans or "blowers." These machines are 
always in a room apart from other machines, called by the 
English the "blowing room," and by the Americans the 
"picker room." 



10 
Self-feeder and Opener, Fig. i. — Lettering. 

A. Feed Box. 

B. Lattice in Bottom. 

C. Vertical Lattice. 

D. Upper or Evening Lattice. 

E. Clearer. 

F. Flue to Opener. 

G. Feed Rolls to Beater. 
H. Beater. 

J. Grids or Screen. 

K. Mote Box or Dirt Box. 

L. Delivering Flue. 

M. Lattice to Feed Roll. 

Self-feeder and Opener — Process. 

Cotton is thrown into feed box A. 

Spiked lattice C picks it up in a sheet. 

Evening lattice D scrapes off surplus cotton. In some 
machines this lattice is so arranged that it may be ad- 
justed nearer to or further from lattice C, and thus regu- 
late the amotmt of cotton that may pass through. Other 
machines have arrangements for varying the speed of 
various parts to regulate the feed. 

Clearer E knocks cotton off clean and drops it into 
flue F. 

Feed rolls G deliver the sheet of cotton to beater H. 

Beater H, revolving about 1,300 revolutions per min- 
ute, beates the cotton down over the grids J. 

Motes and dirt fall through grids J into mote box K. 

Cleaned lint passes out through flue L, whence it is 
taken by suction to the next machine. 

LAPPING, g. A lapper is a machine for cleaning cot- 
ton and forming it into a "lap," or bat or 
roll. Li the best mills there are three processes of lap- 
ping. The first machine is called the "breaker lapper," 



cfq" 



in 

ft) 






o 

(T! 

rt) 




12 

the next the "intermediate" (lapper) and the next the 
"finisher" (lapper). The breaker lapper receives cotton 
from the opener, beats it in the same way as the opener, 
and rolls it up into a lap. Generally this machine is set 
some distance from the opener, either on the same leve] 
or on the floor above. This is for the purpose of inter- 
posing between the two machines a "trunk/'" which is a 
flue about 8 inches deep and 36 inches wide, and varying 
length, according to the room that can be spared, but 
usually 20 to 40 feet. The bottom of the trunk is com- 
posed of grids, and under the grids is another tight flue 
for catching dust and other foreign matter that may sift 
through. 

10. Breaker Lapper, Fig. 2. — Lettering. 

A. Suction Fan. 

B. B. Perforated Revolving Screens. 

C. Feed Rolls. 

D. Beater. 

E. Fan. 

F. F. Perforated Revolving Screens. 

G. Calender Rolls. 
H. Lap Roll. 

J. Lap. 

K. Grid. 

M. M. Dust Flues. 

Breaker Suction fan A has its suction con- 

Lapper — Proces.s. nected with interior of perforated 
screens B B. Air is thus drawn from 
inlet fluejthrough the perforationsin screens. The inlet Hue 
leads from the delivery flue of the opener. Suction thus 
draws cotton against screens. 

Screens B B slowly revolve and slightly condense the 
sheet of cotton between them. The dust in cotton passes 
throup-h screen and through fan to dust flue M. 



3 

crq' 



ri 
re 



CD 




14 

Feed rolls C draw sheet of cotton in and feed it to 
beater. 

Beater D, revolving about 1,400 revolutions per min- 
ute, beats cotton down over grids K. 

Fan E, connected like fan A, draws cotton against 
screens F F. 

Screens F F condense cotton like screens B B. 
Calender rolls G condense the sheet harder. 
The sheet rolls up around lap roll H. There is usually 
an automatic stop motion so arranged that when 48 yards 
pass through the calender rolls the feed rolls and calen- 
der rolls stop. The lap is then removed by an attendant. 
The lap roll is pulled out and put back on the machine 
for forming the next lap. A rod, called the "lap-rod," is 
inserted in centre of lap just removed, so that when it 
is put on the succeeding machine it may unroll by re- 
volving on this rod as a centre. 

The upper feed roll C is held in place by springs or 
weights, so that if any foreign matter should by accident 
pass through, this roll would rise out of the way, instead 
of being bent. The top calender roll G is also weighted. 
These weights are arranged on levers, connected with the 
stop motion in such a way that, should any foreign mat- 
ter of too great bulk pass through, the machine would 
stop. 

II. The fans are all provided with regulating damp- 
ers, so that the cotton may be drawn with more or less 
force against the screens, according as the cotton is more 
or less damp, or according as a heavier or lighter sheet is 
passing through. In subsequent processes, when the 
rolled lap must be unrolled, it sometimes unrohs in a 
thicker or thinner sheet than the original lap. and hence 
splits. This causes irregular work, and should be cor- 
rected by regulating these fan dampers, and sometimes 
by adjusting the weights which are hung on the calender 
rolls. 

The air delivered by all the fans is more or less charged 
with dust and fine particles of short lint. The mill is 



15 

usually designed with a large room in the basement, made 
tight and used as a dust room. All fans deliver into this 
room. A large chimney is connected with it, so that the 
air may escape. Before it does so, it deposits much of 
the dust and lint in the large room, so that practically 
pure air issues from the chimney. Care must be taken to 
have free exit of air from all fans. If they should in any 
way become stopped up, bad work will result. Some old- 
fashioned dust rooms have no chimney, but c;ilow air to 
escape through a horizontal flue; while still others have 
no dust room, and let the fans deliver into open air. Both 
of these arrangements are bad; they scatter lint and dust 
over the premises, and when the wind is in the direction 
to blow up the flues, the fans work badly. Especial at- 
tention must be given to the first fan in breaker lapper, 
which has to draw the cotton from the opener through 
the cleaning trunk. A small leak in the trunk or a small 
obstruction in the discharge of the fan will cause the cot- 
ton to clog in the trunk, and sometimes to fill the trunk 
back as far as the opener, and choke that machine. 
Cleaning trunks are provided with glass windows, so that 
the attendant may easily see whether or not the passage 
is clear. 



16 
12. Intermediate Lapper, Fig. 3. — Lettering. 

A. Lattice. 

B. Laps Being Fed. 

C. Evener Roll. 

D. Evener. 

E. Feed Rolls. 

F. Beater. 

G. Grids. 

H. H. Screens. 
J. Calender Rolls. 
K. Lap Delivered. 
L. Fan. 
M. Dnst Flue. 

Intermediate This machine is same as breaker 

Lapper, PROChSS. lapper except that, instead of re- 
ceiving its feed in the form of a 
fleece, drawn automatically from the preceding 
machine, it is provided with a feed lattice A, on 
which laps from breaker lapper may be laid. These 
laps, generally four, unroll, and the four sheets 
are together fed between fluted rolls E, to beater 
F. This machine has an automatic stop motion 
for "knocking ofT" when laps measure 48 yards. It has 
also an evener D, which is an attachment designed to 
compensate for irregularities of feed, and thus make the 
delivered lap uniform in weight, irrespective (between 
certain limits) of the weight of cotton fed to it. This is 
accomplished by varying the speed of feed rolls E ac- 
cording as the sheet passing through them is thick or 
thin. These rolls are driven by a pair of cone pulleys. 
The mechanism for varying the speed is connected with a 
shifter operating on the cone belt. This mechanism is 
somewhat complicated. The general principle is that a 
series of narrow plates D rest against the roll C. The 
cotton passes between these plates and rolls C, on the 
way to feed rolls E. If a thick spot occur anywhere in 



crq' 



o 







18 

the width of the sheet, the plate mimediately over this 
spot is depressed, and operates to shift the beh so that 
the feed will go slower. A thin spot operates in the re- 
verse way, so that a thick sheet feeds slower and a thin 
sheet feeds faster, thus insuring a uniform quantity pass- 
ing through per minute. This is shown better in diagram. 
Fig. 4. In this diagram one lever is shown entire at the 
left, while the other levers are broken away, to more 
plainly show the arrangement. 

Finisher 13. This is a dupHcate of the intermedi- 

lyAPPER. ate. Four laps from the intermediate are 

placed upon lattice and fed through the 
finisher in the same manner as through the inter- 
mediate. The object is to still further whip out the 
dust, and to make the lap still more uniform in weight. 
It is usual to have the draft of these machines about equal 
to the number of laps fed on the apron, so that the la]) 
delivered by the machine will be about equal in weight to 
each of the laps received by it. If the laps fed to a lapper 
weigh 14 ounces per yard, and there are four of them, 
and the draft of the machine is 4, the lap delivered will 
weigh 14 ounces per yard. This does not take into ac- 
count the loss in weight due to motes and dirt. It is not 
necessary here to complicate the calculation with this 
allowance, because there is an easy way to make small 
adjustments in drafts on these machines, and this must 
be finally done by trial in order to get the weights just 
right. In fact, the adjustment must be frequently made 
to -compensate for changes in the weather, and for cot- 
tons of various degrees of cleanness. The details of 
mechanism by which this adjustment is made vary with 
dififerent builders. In all cases, however, the adjustment 
is made at the point where the evener levers connect with 
belt shifter. There is a long threaded rod which may be 
lengthened or shortened. This change of length tends 
I0 move belt toward one or the other end of the cone. If 
a heavier lap is wanted (that is, less draft) the screw must 



19 

be turned in such a manner as to move the belt toward 
the small end of upper (or driven) cone. This runs feed 
roll faster. If a Hghter lap (that is, more draft) is wanted, 
screw is turned to move belt toward large end of upper 
(or driven) cone. This runs feed roll slower. 

Some finisher lappers are provided with beaters and 
grids made with teeth or spikes, instead of with fiat edges, 
in order to obtain a carding action on the cotton. They 
turn out a smoother lap, and are much liked by many 
superintendents, while others claim that these toothed 
beaters m.ake too much waste. On the whole, it may be 
said that, when properly adjusted, they are of consider- 
able value. 

Single-beater, 14. The lappers above described are 
Double-beater. "single-beater" or "single-section" 
lappers. Each of these machines has 
but a single beater. There are also "double-beater" or 
"double-section" lappers. These have two beaters and 
two sets of revolving screens. When the cotton passes 
through the first beater and between the first pair of 
screens, a pair of feed rolls receives the sheet and feeds 
it to the second beater, which delivers it to the second 
set of screens, whence it goes (as in the case of single- 
beater lapper) to the calender rolls. This machine cleans 
the cotton as well as two single-beater machines, but it 
does not make laps quite as even, for the reason that in 
the two separate machines four laps are doubled into one, 
and this doubling tends to equalize irregularities, on the 
theory that a thick or thin place in one lap, which might 
amount to i per cent, of its thickness, would, when laid 
upon the others, amount to only ^ per cent, of the whole. 
On this theory it is common practice to double, in all the 
processes possible throughout the m.ill. The two-be-";! cr 
lapper takes up less room and costs less i\r\d requires Itss 
attention than two single-beater lappers. 



20 

PRODUCTION. 15. Pickers are rated at a capacity of 
1,500 to 3,000 pounds of cotton per day, 
depending on the weight of the lap. Lappers are usually 
speeded so that they make a lap in about 8 minutes. An 
allowance of 2 minutes per lap is about right for "doffing" 
(taking off) the lap and for other stoppages. If an 8 
ounce lap is being made, the full lap of 48 yards will weigh 
24 pounds, and the capacity of machine for this work will 
be 24 pounds every ten minutes, or 144 pounds per hour, 
or 1,584 pounds per ii-hour day. If a i6-ounce lap is 
made, the capacity of lapper is of course double the above. 
If a small mill works only about half as much cotton as 
the rattd capacity of a lapper, one m.ac^une may be dispen- 
sed with; the laps froni the breaker lapper may be put 
twice through the intermediate, instead of through inter- 
mediate and then through finisher. .Some mills, making- 
coarse work, use only three processes of picking instead 
of four, as above described. This would still further econ- 
omise machines. If a mill uses only about 1,000 pounds 
per day on coarse work, it is possible to get along witli 
only one picking machine. In this case the self-feeder is 
arranged to deliver cotton on to the lattice of a finisher 
lapper. The day's run may be put through in one-third 
of a day. The self-feeder is then stopped, and (.he laps put 
up on the lattice and run through; the new^ laps from this 
process are then run through again. Except as to quan- 
tity, the same result is attained as if three pickers had 
been used. 

16. Having decided upon the weight per yard* de- 
sired for the finished lap, say 12 ounces per yard, the 
weight of 48 yards must be computed. l-2_x^8-- ^5 
pounds. Each finished lap being measured by the auto- 
matic stop motion, will be 48 yards. Each lap should be 
put on the scales, and should weigh 36 pounds. It is not 
possible, with the finest evener, to make every lap of pre- 



* For discussion tf proper weight per yard, see "Organization." 



21 

cisely the same weight, but it should never vary more than 
jr pound on either side of the desired weight, making a 
total allowable variation of i pound, or say about 2^ per 
cent. These variations should be closely watched. If 
the laps persistently run too heavy or too Hght, that is, 
if all the variations are one way, the feed should be adjust- 
ed until the variations occur first on the light side and 
then on the heavy side. Upon regular laps depend regu- 
lar yarn. If laps run uneven, nothing in the subsequent 
processes can ever entirely remedy it. 

General cleanliness is conducive to even work. Parts 
of the picker which are accessible while running should 
be kept constant^ clean. At least once every week the 
machine should have a thorough internal examination 
and cleaning. Short cotton and waste have a tendency to 
accumulate in various corners. If oil has been carelessly 
allowed to waste out of the beater boxes it will run down 
the beater shaft and help to accumulate dirt. The screens 
must be carefully looked after. They must at all times 
be free over their entire surface, otherwise laps will run 
thickest where there is most air and thinnest where 
screens are stopped up. 

17. Throughout the ^picker room there must prevail 
the utmost precaution against fire. This is the most dan- 
gerous place in the mill, because of the foreign, matter li- 
able to be in cotton bales, and because of handhng the 
cotton in loose form. Matches are sometimes found in- 
side of bales, and matches are sometimes carelessly drop- 
ped by operatives. If a match passes through a picker 
it rarely fails to start a fire. All the conditions are favor- 
able, loose cotton is in abundance and the fans furnish a 
blast like a blacksmith's bellows. For the f^ame reason, 
a small piece of iron will strike fire in a picker and set cot- 
ton ablaze. If cotton is delivered througli a cleaning 
trunk, this furnishes for the flame a perfect passage to the 
next machine. 

Some cleaning trunks are provided with automatic 
sprinklers, which operate to put out a fire. Tj-lc machine 



22 

should be stopped as soon as fire is discovered, thus stop- 
ping- the air blast. The discharge pipes frcni all the fans 
are usually made of galvanized iron. Each oiie should 
run independently into the dust room, and should have a 
shutter on the discharge end in the dust rooni, which will 
automatically close in case of fire in the dust room or in 
the dust flue to which it is attached, thus preventing fire 
from passing-up flue into picker room. 

The automatic shutter consists of a sheet iron plate, 
so hinged and weighted that in its natural position it is 
closed. But it is fastened open by a fusible link. In case 
of fire in flue or dust room this link melts and shutter 
closes. 

A barrel of water and two or three fire buckets should 
always be a part of the equipment of the picker room. 

C.\LCULATIONS.-Draft. i8. It is not often necessary 

in a cotton mill to make any 
calculations as to draft of a picker. When the specific^.- 
tions for a mill are originally drawn up the weight of lap 
to be made is specified, and the maker of njachine sends 
with the machine the proper gears to produce the desired 
result. Any small changes that are ordinarily to be made 
in a mill may be made by adjusting the self-ieeder and 
making a heavier or lighter breaker lap, or by adjusting the 
evener on the finisher lapper. But a diagram, Fig. 4, is giv- 
en with calculations to show how it ma}- be done. This dia- 
gram is not intended to represent a picker in its exact me- 
chanical proportions, but is made with a view to separat- 
ing the gears so the}' may be readily seen in tlie order in 
which they transmit their power. Only such gears are 
given as have an influence on the "draft" of the machine; 
that is, the relation of the stock fed to that delivered. 
The lap is fed between the evener bars, a, and the feed roll, 
b. It passes through beater and screens, and is finally de- 
livered through calender rolls d. The pulley A is driven 
from a small pulley on main beater shaft. This pulley A 



24 

is on a shaft carrying gears, which drive both feed roll 
and calender rolls. The problem is to find the ''value" 
of this train of gears. 

Draft Rui.E. 19. The rule for lindinp: draft of 
a machine of any kind is to con- 
sider the gear on feed roll or place where stock enters ma- 
chine as the driver, whether it is, mechanically, or not. 
MULTIPLY TOGETHER THE DIAMETER OF DE- 
LIVERING ROLL AND ALL THE DRIVING 
GEARS FOR A DIVIDEND (OR NUMERATOR); 
MULTIPLY TOGETHER THE DIA^'IETER OF 
RECEIVING ROLL AND ALL THE DRIVEN 
GEARS FOR A DIVISOR (OR DENOMINATOR). 
The quotient is the draft. 

Applying this rule to pickers, it will be noted that a 
pair of cone pulleys intervene, but in making;" the calcu- 
lation the belt is considered as on the middle of the cones, 
so that the effect is just the same as if there were two 
gears or two pulleys of same size. The worm U working 
into wheel V is just tlie same as if the worm were a gear 
with one tooth; for one revolution of worm moves wheel 
V forward just one tooth. With the foregoing ex- 
planation, the formula for draft of a machine vath gears 
as per Fig. 4 is 

5 X 10 X 50 X 38 X 35 X 22 X 24 X 18 
i 2 X 33 X I X 30 X 21 X 53 X 72 X 48 

This works out 4.15, and means that i yard of stock 
received by machine (when belt is in middle ..'t cone pul- 
leys) is 4.15 times as heavy as i yard delivered by machine. 
If cone belt is shifted to small end of 1op cone the draft, 
would be 

1x4.15=2.77. 
If on the large end of top cone, the draft would be 

1x4.15=6.23. 
From the above it will be seen that the draft 



25 

of this picker may be altered between the limits 
of 2.77 and 6.23, without changing a gear. The 
eveners a are connected with a mechanism which 
shifts cone belt to equaUze unevenness, as ex- 
plained in (12). By adjusting this connection the belt may 
be made to work at any given place when the lap is just 
right. It will play on both sides of this point according 
to the unevenness of feed. It is better to arrange it so the 
belt will play about the centre of the length of cones. 

Constant or 20. Referring to Fig. 4, R is marked 
Dividend. "draft;" this is the gear that is to be 

changed when a greater amount of 
change in draft is required. If twice .the draft is required, 
half the number of teeth should be in draft gear. If in 
the above formula this draft gear 30 is left out, it will read: 

5 X 10 X 50 X 38 X 35 X 22 X 24 X 18 
2 X 33 X I X 21 X 53 X 72 X 48 

The result is 124.50, which of course is 30 times the 
former result, 4.15. If this amount (124.50) be divided 
by the draft gear (30) it will give the draft (4.15). If it be 
divided by the draft (4.15) it will give the draft gear (30). 
Thus it is seen that if this number, 124.50 (called the ''con- 
stant/' or "dividend"), be known for any particular ma- 
chine, the draft gear to produce any desired draft may be 
found by dividing the constant by the draft required. In 
like manner, if the gear is known and it is required to find 
what draft-it will give, this constant is divided by the gear. 
Suppose in the above machine there is wanted a draft of 
2. Dividing 124.50 by 2 gives 62.25. This is theoreti- 
cally the correct draft gear, with belt in middle of cones. 
We may use 62 and adjust the belt to a point that will 
bring it right. Suppose there is on the above machine a 
draft gear 40, and it is required to know what draft it will 
give. Dividing the constant 124.50 by 40 gives 3.1 1. 
This is the draft when belt is in middle of cones. 



26 

SUnriARY 21. Cotton is mixed in piles or in mixing bins. 
It is fed to opener. Opener beats it and de- 
livers it loose into flue. Breaker lapper has a suction fan 
which draws cotton from flue of opener through cleaning- 
trunk and delivers it to beater. Cotton then rolls itself 
into a lap on the same machine. This lap may weigh lo 
to 1 8 ounces per yard, according to the organization. A 
number of these laps (usually 4) are laid on lattice of inter- 
mediate. Intermediate beats them and forms them into 
other laps, weighing about the same as breaker laps, 
sometimes less. A number of these intermediate laps 
(usually 4) are put on lattice of finisher and formed into 
finished laps, weighing about the same as intermediate 
laps, sometimes less. 

Thus cotton has been beaten four times, once at the 
opener, once at the breaker, once at the intermediate, 
once at the finisher. The same four beatings might be ac- 
complished by having the opener deliver to a two-beater 
breaker and taking laps from this machine to a single- 
beater finisher, or by having a single-beater breaker and 
a two-beater finisher. 

Where only a small production is required, the object 
may be attained by putting laps successively through one 
machine. 

It is not a fixed rule tliat there must be exactly four 
beatings. Common and coarse work might be done with 
three, or even two. Compressed cotton or cotton that is 
unusually dirty might require five beatings. But for the 
average class of cotton and the average class of goods 
made in the South, four beatings appear to have the pref- 
erence. It is quite possible to overdo the matter with 
more than four beatings. Excessive waste might be 
made, and the fibre might be damaged. 

22. GENERAL DATA. 

Floor Space. Weight. Cost. 

Self-feeder 6 ft. x 7 ft. 1,000 Ids. $250.00 

One- beater Lapper 6 ft. x 16 ft. 6.000 ibs 700.00 

Two-beater Lapper. ... 6 ft. x 22 ft. 8,500 lbs. 1,000.00 



27 

Different builders make machines with dififerent dimen- 
sions and prices. The aboA^e figures are only intended 
as a general average. 

These machines are all furnished with countershafts 
which run 400 to 600 revolutions per minute. The re- 
ceiving pulleys on this countershaft are about 16 inches 
diameter, 4 inches face, tight and loose. The beater 
shafts are driven from countershaft, and run 1,200 to 
1,400 revolutions per minute. Single-beater lappers 
require about 4-horse power and two-beater lappers 
about 6-horse power. 

SPECIFICATIONS. 23. The builders of all machines have 
blank specification sheets for purchasers 
to fill out in making an order. The following is a sample 
blank : 
Number of Self-feeders Openers 

Breaker Lappers.. Intermediate Lappers.. 

Finisher Lappers. . . 

Breakers. Interm'd'tes. Fin'h'rs. 

Single or Double Beater, 

Speed Counter Shaft, 

Receiving Pulley on Counter, 

Kind of Beater, 

Kind of Evener, 

Width of Lap, 

Number of Laps Fed, 

Weight of Laps Fed, 

Weight of Laps Del'd, 

Kind of Trunk 

Distance betwen floors where machines stand 

Shipping Instructions 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 



CHAPTER III. 

24. In a modern cottcn mill the revolvmg top flat 
card is the only one in use. It has displaced the older 
forms known as "Roller Cards," "Top Flat Cards," and 
"Wellman Cards." 

REVOLVING TOP FLAT CARD. FIG. 5— LETTERING. 

A. Fluted Feed Roll. 

B. Lap from Picker Room, 

C. Licker-in (or Taker-in). 

D. Cylinder. 

E. Doffer. 

F. Doffer Comb. 

G. Trumpet. 

FT. Calender Roll. 

J. Condenser Rolls. 

K. Can. 

L. Chain of Revolving Top Flats. (Sometimes called 
"Slats.") 

M. Brush to Clean Flats. 

N. Roll of Toppings (or Strippings). 

P. Top Flat Comb. 

R. Teeth on Card Clothing. 

T. Teeth on Top Flats. 

U. Teeth on Licker-in. 

W. Feed plate (or "Dish Plate," or "Shell Plate," or 
"Shell Feed"). 

X. Mote Knives 

Y. Grids under Licker-in. 

Z. Grids under Cylinder. 



orq* 

Ln 

< 

5' 
o 

o 




30 
REVOI.VING Top Flat Card — Process. 

Lap unrolls and is drawn between feed roll A and feed 
plate W. 

Licker-in C cuis it down ynd carries it over grids Y. 

Cylinder D takes it up in a thin sheet and carries it over 
in contact with teeth on top flats T. This action cards 
or combs it into some degree of parallelism. 

Top flats remove short IVbres or "neps" (matted or im- 
mature fibres). 

Chain of flats move slowly forward, so that new flats 
are continually coming into action, while old fats are leav- 
ing the cylinder. 

Comb P removes short fibres from flats. These fibres, 
called "toppings," roll up on rod N. This rod is held in 
contact with the teeth of flats by springs. 

Brush M finishes the cleaning of flats. 

Doffer E removes sheer of carded cotton from cylin- 
der. 

Doffer comb F removes sheet from doffer. 

Sheet is drawn through trumpet G by calender rolls 
H. The sheet is thus formed into a round mass, called 
"sliver." 

Condenser rolls J take sliver and deliver it to coiler 
head. 

Coiler is a revolving pbte with a hole in it, revolving 
in such a way as Lo deliver sHver in coils in the can K. The 
can stands on a plate near floor, which revolves in the op- 
posite direction from coiler. Centre of can does not stand 
directly under centre of coiler. 




Fio-. 6. Coils ill Can. 



32 

Fisf. 6 shows how coils are laid in can. More stock 
may be put in a can in this way than any other. 

Fig. 7 shows how sliver is delivered from calender 
rolls R on card, taken to condenser rolls P, ai.d dehvered 
through hole T in coiler head to can U. 

By following the gearing, it will be seen that the coiler 
head turns 20 times in one direction while tijc can turns 
once in the other. This lays 20 series of coils in the can, as 
shown in Fig. 6. 

25. The teeth on the licker-in are made strong, some- 
what like a gin saw. They whip out the motes and most 
other impurities. These fall through grids Y. The mote 
knives X are adjustable, and are set in such a manner as to 
intercept the motes, and not disturb the clean cotton. As 
the fibres pass around the cylinder, other impurities are 
sifted out through the grids Z, so that the sliver delivered 
should be reasonably free from all foreign matter. 

Setting up and adjusting a card is a delicate piece of 
work, and should be attempted only by an expert. New 
cards are sent from the shop "knocked-down," that is, in 
pieces. The builders always send a man to erect the card 
in the mill, clothe, grind, and adjust it, in the place where 
it is to stand. 

CLOTHING. 26. Card clothing consists of a heavy 
strip (called the "foundation") made 
of cloth or rubber, having teeth inserted in it. 
The foundation is usually made of alternate layers 
of cotton cloth and sheet rubber, about four ply, 
and about 3-32 inches thick. Different makers use 
various materials and methods in making it. The 
teeth are made from fine tempered steel wire, about 34 
gauge. The wire is bent in the shape of a carpet tack and 
driven through the foundation, then slightly bent again 
in the direction of the length of the strip. The points 
project through about 5-16 inches, and the bend is about 
1-16 inch from the face of foundation. The points stand 
200 to 600 per square inch. The strips (called "fillets") 




Us 



Fig. 7. Coiler and Can. 



34 

are now made 2 inches wide by 275 feet long for a cylinder, 
p.ud 1 1 inches wide by 200 teet long for a 24 inch doffer. 

27, Formerly the fillets were made 4 mches wide. The 
fmeness of setting of teeth, or what is known as "counts" 
was based on the number of rows of teeth in this width of 
four inches. Counts 100 meant that there were 100 rows 
of teeth across the 4-inch hilet. There was no variation hx 
the number of rows lengthwise of the fillet; all counts had 
formerly 10 rows per incli lengthwise. Since the intro- 
duction of 2-inch and ij-irich fillets, there bcs been no 
change in the method of expressing the "counts," though 
it does not now express anything definite. On examin- 
ing a large number of samples of English card clothing 
now on the market, it appears that the different numbers 
all run about the same lengthwise, viz: 23 points per inch, 
while in the same "counts'" of different makers, there is a 
wide variation in the number of points per inch of width. 
For example, 80 "counts," which should have 20 points 
per inch of width (to make 80 in 4 inches), has varying 
numbers from 18 to 20. Ninety counts averages about 21 
points per inch of width, while 100 to 120 counts all aver- 
age about the same, viz: 23. Nominally no counts seemii 
to be about 529 points per square inch. While there is 
not any unanimity of opniion as to what the best thing is 
it would be best in all cases, where there is any real pref- 
erence, to specify not the "counts," but numi)or of points 
per square inch. After the teeth are inserted ni the foun- 
dation, the points are ground off even. Clothing is said 
to be "plow-ground" when, after being ground off eve;i, 
the sides of the teeth are ground with a thin emery whee'. 
so that the teeth are narrov, er across the fihet than the/ 
are lengthwise. This style of tooth is by mi\nv authori- 
ties considered the best, br.t it is not certain tliat it is of 
any great advantage for the class of work done in the 
South. 

Clothing is usually furri'shed by the builder of cards 
(though he does not make it), and it is inchi.led in the 
price of cards. 



85 

28. The fillet is applied to cylinders and doffers, by 
being wound on spirally, under considerable tension. The 
cylinder is turned with a crank by hand, while the tension 
on fillet is produced by a special machine Hhich has a 
small drum around which fillet is wrapped, and a friction 
jav/ through which fillet passes on its way to tlie cylinder. 
There is a hand-screw on the jaw, and an indicator to 
show how many pounds the fillet is pulling A pull of 
about 400 pounds is used for a fillet 2 inclies wide, and 
300 pounds for i^inches wide. The card cylinders are of 
iron, but they have wooden plugs inserted m the face at 
proper intervals for tacking on the fillet. It is necessary 
to have the surfaces very clean and smooth, so that there 
may be no lumps in the clothing. It is also necessary to 
have cards and clothing in the room at an even tempera- 
ture of 70 or 80 degrees F, and to let them remain there 
long enough to assume the same temperature. Any 
great difference might cause clothing to pucker. 

29. After fillet is carefully put on and tacked in place, 
the surface is ground. This is done by apply- 
ing an emery roll on adjustable brackets, and re- 
volving it 400 to 600 revolutions per minute, at 
the same time running the cylinder 150 to 200 
revolutions in a direction opposite to that in which 
the teeth are set. The emery roll is carefully set 
up until it touches the points of the teeth. If it toucher, 
too hard it will form hooks on the fine teeth and ruin 
them. It is run this way, being set closer to wire, from 
time to time for three or four days, or until tlie entire sur- 
face feels perfectly even and smooth. It re^iuires good 
judgment and experience to do this work, and to tell when 
it is complete. 

There are two kinds of grinding rolls, the "Long 
Grinder" and the "Traverse Grinder." The long 
grinder is a cylinder a little longer than the face of 
the card, say 42 inches, and 5 inches to 6 inclies in diam- 
eter. It is so arranged that while it revolves it also has 
a slight reciprocal motion. This causes more even grind- 



36 

iiig. The traverse grinder consists of a hollow shaft car- 
rying an emery wheel about 8 inches in diameter and 3 
inches face. It is so arranged that while revolving, the 
wheel traverses from one end to the other of the shaft 
across the face of card. This shaft is mounted on adjusta- 
ble brackets, the same as long grinder. The long grinder 
is first used for rough grinding the surface. Afterwards, 
the finishing is done with traverse grinder. These 
grinders are made of metal and covered with strips of 
emery cloth, wound on spirally. The strips are called 
"fillets." When one fillet is worn, it may be easily 
replaced. 

30. After cards are ground, the top flats and other 
parts are put on. Then the various parts are "set" to 
their proper working positions. For this purpose, a set 
of gauges is furnished with, the cards. It consists of a 
series of about four thin flat steel plates about 2 inches 
wide and seven inches long, lightly riveted together, form- 
ing a hinge at one end for convenience. The usual thick- 
ness of card gauges are 5, 6, 7, 10 thousands of an inch 
respectively. The figures 5, 6, 7, 10 are stamped on them. 
There are dift'erences of opinion as to the proper settings 
of cards, probably arising from different conditions of 
stock, different speeds, etc. The following represents a 
fair average rule for setting. 

Feed Roll to Licker-in 10 (Thousandths.) 

Licker-in to Cylinder 7 

Cylinder to Doffer 7 

Top Flats to Cylinder 10 

Mote-knives to Licker-in 16 

Bottom Screens or Grids 3-16 inch. 

It requires a delicate touch to perceive these minute 
differences. A point which is more important than set- 
ting the various parts at the exact figures given is paral- 
lel setting. Whatever gauge is determined upon for any 
part, let that gauge be the same at each end of card — that 
is, if the cylinder be 8 thousandths from the licker-in at 
one end, let it be 8 at the other end also, otherwise the 




Stripping Box. 



38 

web of cotton on card will be thicker in one part than 
another, and irregular work will result. 

31. When card is set up, ground and ready for work, 
if the mill is not ready to run, it is best to run a little cot- 
ton through, to fill up the wire. This will tend to preserve 
the teeth from rust. It is best to keep the card room 
warm, so that the air will be relatively dry, and less apt 
to deposit moisture on the delicate teeth. The greatest 
care must be exercised to keep the card dry. If there are 
overhead water or steam pipes, they must be carefully 
examined for leaks. A very small leak will ruin an entire 
set of clothing. 

32. Very little attention is required to operate cards, 
after they are once set up and adjusted to do the work. 
Putting on new laps and replacing full cans with empty 
ones constitute the principal duties of the attendant. But 
the machine must be carefully watched, to see that no ad- 
justment becomes deranged. 

Stripping, 33. About twice a day the cards are "strip- 
Grinding, ped." Stripping is cleaning out from the 
Burnishing, wire teeth the short fibres that imbed them- 
selves there. It is done by means of a re- 
volving brush, made of wire teeth, similar to card clothing, 
but with longer teeth. This brush is supported on the 
same brackets used for the grinding rolls, and is 
run by an endless rope, driven generally from a groove 
on the loose pulley of card. While the stripping roll is 
running, the belt is gently shifted from time to time on 
to the tight pulley, enough to produce a slow motion of 
cylinder for a few revolutions, so that the stripping may 
take place around the entire circumference of cylinders. 
The teeth of stripping roll naturally become filled with 
Hnt. This is removed with a hand card, or better, with 
a stripping box, such as is shov/n in Fig. 8. This is a box 
mounted on wheels, so that it may be rolled near each 
card, convenient for the purpose. The stripping roll is 
laid in the bearings, as shown, and turned backwards by 
hand. The coarse card clothing on the board just below 



o9 



the roll combs out the strippings and drops them into 
the box in the form of a roll. 

The top fiats are kept constantly stripped while in op- 
eration, as shown in (24). The character of strippings 
from cylinder and from fiats is about the same. The 
fibres are white and clean, but short. They cannot be 
with advantage mixed with new stock again. One of the 
purposes of carding is to remove these short fibres, so 
that to mix them again would be to defeat this object 
and to give the cards double work. The strippings are 
generally sold for working into coarser fabrics in a waste 
mill. They bring about 60 per cent, of the value of good 
cotton. The total waste around a card amounts to 
about 5 per cent, of the stock worked, of which the strip- 
pings (including "toppings") form about two-thirds. 

34. After cards are run a month or two the teeth be- 
come dull, and require re-grinding. This may be done 
without dismantling card. The casing at R, Fig. 5, is 
opened on its hinge and fastened back, while an emery 
roll (usually a traverse roll) is put up on its bracket and 
run in the same way it was when the card was originally 
set up and ground. Now, however, only a few hours' 
grinding is suf!icient. The teeth on clothing of main cyl- 
inder are inclined in the same direction in which this cyl- 
inder runs while at work. Hence when it is to be ground 
the belt must be crossed (or uncrossed, if it happens to 
be already driven with a cross belt) to reverse the direc- 
tion. The teeth on doffer, however, are inclined in the 
opposite direction from its direction of rotation. (This 
may be plainly seen by reference to Fig. 5.) iTence the 
doffer must be ground while it is running in the same 
direction as when at work. 

Sometimes it is necessary to burnish the teeth. This 
is done with a revolving burnishing brush made like the 
stripping brush, except with straight teeth. This is run 
in the same way as stripping brush. The teeth are set 
to run about ^ inch deep in card teeth. Burnishing re- 



40 

moves rust and any burrs that may have been formed by 
careless grinding. 

It is also necessary, at times, to grind and burnish the 
top flats. The long grinder is used for this pur- 
pose. Special appliances are sent with the card for grind- 
ing flats while they are running. Some makers have pat- 
ented appliances for grinding them while in their actual 
working position — that is, face downward. If ground with 
face uppermost the flat will spring by its own weight 
and by pressure of grinding roll, and the face side 
will grind convex — that is, with higher teeth in 
centre than at end. When flat turns itself over 
to its working position its weight will tend to 
sag the centre of the face still more, and ex- 
aggerate the convexity, so that the flat will be nearer 
card cylinder in its centre than at ends. On the other hand, 
if flats can be ground while in working position there will 
be no change, and flat will pass over cylinder, at same dis- 
tance, from end to end. Grinding, stripping and burnish- 
ing rolls are considered "extras" in the price of cards. 
They are commonly ordered in the following proportions: 

Traverse grinding rolls, i for lo cards or less. 

Long grinding rolls, i for 20 cards or less. 

Burnishing rolls, i for 30 cards or less. 

Stripping rolls, i for 30 cards or less. 

35. Card sliver as it is delivered into the can should 
weigh a definite number of grains per yard. This, to- 
gether with draft of card and other particulars are all laid 
out on the "organization" sheet of the mill, for produc- 
ing a certain grade of goods. The sliver should be 
weighed each day, and kept within 5 per cent, of the spec- 
ified weight. One yard is weighed at a time. It is 
either measured with a yard stick or with the roving reel 
described in {jj^. Variations in its weight will occur 
from variations in the weight of lap supplied, from the 
accumulation of too much fibre in the clothing, from 
variation in grade of stock, and from variation in the state 
of the weather. Of the above factors, those which are 



41 

under control should be carefully managed so that the 
VN^eight of sliver delivered shall be as uniform as possible. 
CALCULATIONS.-Draft. 36. Fig. 9 is a diagram of 

draft gearing on card. This is 
made for the purpose of illustrating the method ol calcu- 
lating draft, and is not intended to exhibit the exact con- 
struction of the machine. Different makers have differ- 
ent details in gearing and different size gears, but the 
figures marked on the diagram v^ill serve as a guide for 
calculating draft of any card of this type. 

Folloiwing the rule laid down in (19,) multiply the diam- 
eter of delivery roll and the teeth of all driving gears, 
and divide the product by the product of diameter of feed 
roll and the teeth of all driven gears, considering the feed 
roll as the driver, 

i^ X 130 X 34 X 190 X 29 X 24 
2| X 15 X 34 X 28 X 15 X 18 

This works out 90.96, and means that i yard of stock 
fed to the card weighs 90.96 times as much as i yard of 
stock delivered; or, what is the same thing, i yard of the 
sliver delivered weighs 9-^.-9 g- of i yard of the lap fed. To 
ascertain the weight in grains of i yard of sliver that 
would be delivered by this card when fed with a lap weigh- 
ing 14 ounces per yard, reduce the 14 ounces to grains 
(there are 437i grains in one ounce) thus: 14 x 437 i^^ 
6,125 gi'ains. Divide 6,125 by 90.96, and the result, 67.3, 
is the theoretical weight in grains of i yard of sliver. As 
there is about 5 per cent, of weight lost in the card, the 
actual weight of silver would be 5 per cent, less than 67.3. 
or 64 grains. The ACTUAL DRAFT of card is about 
5 per cent, more than theoretical (on account of the 
waste), or say 95.50. Unless otherwise specified, the word 
"draft" always refers to theoretical draft. 



42 

37- Referring to Fig. 9, C is marked "draft." This 
is the gear to change to make a change in draft in card. 
Following the same method of calculations as in (19) the 
"constant" for this card is found by leaving the draft gear 
15 out of the formula in (36), thus: 



1 



X 130 X 34 X 190 X 29 X 24 
X34X 28x15x18 



This works out 1,364.40, which is of course 15 times 
the former result. This is the "constant" or "dividend." 
If there be required a draft of 100, the draft gear would 
be ij3^6_4-_j^ as near as possible. Or if this card al- 
ready had on it a draft gear of 20, the draft of the card 
would be computed thus: L3|4^4o,^5g_22. 

38. With the draft gear 15 on this card, using 14 
ounce lap, it will be seen that the actual weight of sliver 
delivered is about 4 1-3 grains per tooth of draft gear. 
This fact gives a rough basis for estimating the effect on 
weight of sliver which a change in draft gear w^ould make, 
when other conditions remain the same. For example, 
suppose a carder, under above conditions, be called upon 
to make a 70 grain sliver instead of 65; he could estimate 
that a 16 tooth draft gear w^ould make from same lap about 
69 1-3 grains. He could either make this change and a 
slight adjustment in the lapper to make lap a little 
heavier, or he could leave the same draft on card, and 
make the lap heavier. If he were called upon to make a 
64 grain sliver, he would know that the change of one 
tooth in draft gear to 14 would reduce weight to about 
60 2-3 grains, and so he would not disturb the card, but 
would make the lap Hghter. 

39. Before the introduction of coders and cans, the 
webb from doffer passed through trumpet and was led 
into a troujjh in which was traveling an endless 
belt, which carried the sliver along with slivers from sev- 
eral other cards, to the "rail-way head," where they were 



44 

condensed and drawn out and delivered into cans. Under 
this arrangement it was necessary to compute the draft 
of card from the weight of shver as it was deHvered from 
doffer, instead of, as in (36), from the condenser rolls. This 
has led to a general idea that drafts on cards of all kinds 
must be computed from doffer. As there is a slight 
draft between dofifer and condenser rolls, this would not 
be correct. It may be calculated in that way, however, 
and the result multiplied by the draft from dofTer to con- 
denser roll. In order to do it this way, and also in or- 
der to illustrate the principle of partial drafts, the calcu- 
lation is submitted: Draft between feed roll (2^ inches 
diameter) and doffer (24! inches diameter over the wire): 

24I X 130 X 34 



2i X 15 X 34 



This works out 85.80. This would be the draft of the 
card if the sliver left the machine at that part. But as it 
does not, the draft must be calculated between the doffer 
and condenser roll. Considering the doffer as driver, the 
draft is: 



i4 X 190 X 29 X 24 

1.06 



24^ X 28 X 15 X 18 

Now if the draft from feed roll to doffer is 85.80, and 
the draft from dofTer to condenser roll is 1.06, the whole 
draft of card is 85.80 x 1.06=90.96, as before.** It is 
obvious that the method of finding the whole drafts at 
once, given in (36). is much easier and more logical than 
finding two separate drafts and multiplying them to- 
gether. 



** It is a common error to suppose that in a case of this kind, the 
drafts should be added, not multiplied. 



45 

For good carding the extreme range of draft should not 
be less than 75 nor more than 125, while a draft of about 
100 is considered best. Too little draft (which means faster 
feeding) crowds the card clothing, so that there are more 
fibres than can be properly carded. Too much draft is 
apt to leave too thin a sheet of fibres on the clothing and 
result in thin or "bald" spots. 

Production. 40. On all machines, production is meas- 
ured by two factors: speed of delivery roU 
and weight per yard of stock delivered. Applying this to 
the card, the condenser roll would be the one to measure 
and count, but it has become customary to gauge the 
production of a card by the speed of dofifer. This cus- 
tom arose at the time when the doffer was really the de- 
livery roll. As there is but a slight draft between doffer 
and present delivery roll, the custom continues, and is near 
enough for the purpose. Doffer speeds may vary between 
10 and 20 revolutions per minute. A good average is 15. 
Slower than this makes a low production, and much faster 
crowds the card and makes poor work. A belt from main 
cyHnder shaft drives Hcker-in; a belt from opposite end 
of Hcker-in shaft drives a small counter-shaft, carrying a 
pinion which drives a large gear on doffer. The speed 
of dofifer may be varied by varying size of this pinion, 
which is called the "barrow-wheel." On account of the 
fact that this wheel controls the speed of doffer (which 
itself controls the output or production of card), it is also 
cahed the "production gear." The doffer drives feed roll 
-through side shaft, as seen in Fig. 9. It is thus plain that 
changing the production gear does not alter draft of card, 
because feed roll and doffer are changed proportionately. 
At a doffer speed of 15, and a diameter over the wire of 
24I inches, the number of inches of sliver delivered will 
be 24^ X 3.1416 X 15=1166.32 inches or ^-||^^=32.39 
yards per minute. This is 32.39 x 60 x 11 = 21,377 yards 
per day of 11 hours. If the sliver weigh 65 grains per 



46 

yard, the total weight produced is 21,377 x 65=1,389,505 
grains per day or (since 7,000 grains make i pound) 
""7^T¥l^ = i9^ pounds per day. This is the theoretical 
production, with no allowance for stoppage. At least 10 
per cent, should be deducted for stoppage. This would 
leave the actual production at about 178 pounds. If the 
doffer be speeded faster or slower than 15 the production 
may be computed from the above by the rule of three. 
In the same way, the production may be figured if sliver 
is made to weigh more or less than 65 grains. Under the 
average conditions in the South, cards are figured at a 
production of 170 pounds per day of 11 hours. They may 
be crowded to 200 or even 225 pounds, but it is not ad- 
visable. Card clothing is so delicate, and the settings are 
so close, that in overloading there is always danger of 
damaging the clothing. 

STATIONARY 41. Fig. 10 is a diagram of the 

TOP FLAT, OR stationary flat card, as improved 

WELLHAN CARDS, by the addition of the coiler. Form- 
erly the sliver left doffer, passed 
through trumpet, and was led into a trough with 
other slivers to a rail-way head. Now, however., 
the coiler and can have been generally introduced in 
connection with stationary top flat cards, in place of the 
railway troughs and heads. This arrangement allows each 
card to work as an individual machine, to be stopped and 
started at will, instead of being part of a series. 

This card does its work in the same way as the revolv- 
ing top flat card, though it is smaller, and has less produc- 
tion. The principal difference consists in the mechanism 
for stripping flats. Formerly the flats were lifted out, one 
at a time, and stripped by hand. An American by the 
name of Wellman invented an ingenious attachment for 
automatically lifting and stripping these flats at regular 
intervals. With this attachment, the machine is known 
as the Wellman card. It is still widely in use in old mills. 



3 

(Tq' 



in 

r-t- 
r-t- 

o' 

H 
o 

n 
i-t 




48 

But the revolving top flat card is now being introduced 
in new mills, and is rapidly supplanting all others in old 
mills. 

DOUBLE CARDING. 42. With old fashioned cards it 

was in some cases necessary to 
card cotton twice. For double carding, the combined 
slivers from several cards, instead of being delivered to 
a rail-way head, are taken to a lap head, which is a ma- 
chine like the calender end of a lapper. Here the sHvers 
are consolidated and made into a lap ready to be carded 
again. The first lot of cards are called "breaker cards," 
while those performing the second carding are called 
"finisher cards." Double carding is also sometimes done 
with a double card, made for the purpose, where the webb 
from the doffer of the first cylinder is not compressed 
into a sliver, but passes to another cylinder, where it is 
carded the second time. 

With the introduction of more perfect machines, dou- 
ble carding is being abandoned. It is found that single 
carding with the improved machines is better than double 
carding with the old. 

QENENAL DATA. 43. A revolving top flat card 
usually has cyHnder 50 inches diame- 
ter (on the iron) and 40 inches wide on the face. 
The doffer is sometimes 24 inches, sometimes 26 
inches, sometimes 27 inches in diameter and 40 
inches wide on face. It has a coiler for can 9 
inches, 10 inches or 12 inches diameter, as pre- 
ferred. The cans are 36 inches high. The floor space oc- 
cupied by card is about 5 feet 3 inches wide and 10 feet 
6 inches long, over all, including 12 inch coiler and can on 
one end and a full lap in place on the other. Tight and 
loose pulleys are usually 20 inches by 3 inches, and should 
run 160 to 170. Power required, ^^ to f horse power Its 
weight complete is about 7,000 pounds, and cost about 
$600. Cards are being made with cylinder 45 inches wide 



49 

on face instead of 40 inches. This card has -J more ca- 
pacity, and only occupies a space 5 inches wider. One 
attendant can run as many large cards as small ones. Their 
introduction, however, would involve correspondingly 
wide lappers. For this reason wide cards will probably 
never be extensively put into old mills. 

Under average conditions, a card will use up a lap in 
about two hours. The sliver from it will occupy five or 
six 12 inch cans. Cans hold 7 to 8 pounds of sliver, and 
run full in about 20 minutes. 

The "hand" of a card is determined by standing in 
"front" of card — that is, at the doffer — and noting where 
main driving pulley is. If pulley is on right, it is a right 
hand card, otherwise left hand. There is some confusion 
existing in the use of this term, arising from a difference 
of opinion as to which is the "front" of the card. Eng- 
lish builders generally call the front the end where the 
stock enters machine, while American builders cah the 
front the place where stock leaves machine.** In view 
of this confusion, it is always better, in making specifica- 
tions, to state exphcitly that pulley is to be on right hand 
side (or left hand, as desired) when standing at doffer. 

English builders refer to cards as "carding engines." 

Revolving top flat cards were formerly made with about 
80 flats. They are now made with about 104. 



** It is more in accordance with the other notation throughout 
mill to call the "front" of a machine the place where stock leaves it. 
However illogical it may seem, there is no difference of opinion as to 
which is the front of a speeder or of a drawing frame. The "front 
roll" is where the stock is delivered from machine. 



50 

SPECIFICATIONS : 44. Following is a sample blank 
specification sheet to be filled out 
in ordering cards: 

Number of Cards 

Number right hand (standing at doffer) 

Number left hand 

Width of face (40 inch standard) 

Diameter of DofTer (on the iron) ! 

Diameter of Can 

Weight of Lap 

Weight of Sliver 

Production required per 1 1 hours 

Belted from above or below 

Size driving pulleys (20 x 3 standard) 

Speed driving pulleys 

Kind of Clothing preferred 

Number of Stripping Rolls ($20 extra) 

Number of Burnishing Rolls ($20 extra) 

Number Traverse Grinders ($60 extra) 

Number Long Grinders ($35 extra) 

Shipping Instructions 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 



f)l 



CHAPTER IV. 

Drawing. 

45. Following the stock through the mill in logical 
sequence, railway heads come before drawing. But 
drawing will be treated first, because it is rapidly super- 
ceding the railway head. As the latter is similar in prin- 
ciple to drawing, it will be briefly treated in the next 
chapter by reference to the principles laid down for draw- 
ing. 

46. When the sliver leaves the card, the fibres of cot- 
ton have been laid approximately parallel; but, owing to 
a natural tendency to curl and twist, the fibres stand out 
in many directions, and are considerably entangled with 
one another. It is the purpose of the drawing frame to 
stretch some of the curl out of the fibres, and to finish 
the process of parallelizing, and to even up irregularities 
by the process of doubling and drawing out referred to 
in (14.) 

We have seen that the card delivers its product in the 
shape of a sliver coiled in a can. These cans are taken 
to the drawing frame and arranged so that several slivers 
may be fed between one set of drawing rolls. From 4 to 
7 (usually 6) card slivers are fed together between rolls 
and drawn into one. This constitutes one "delivery" of 
drawing. One frame or "head" is built to contain 4 to 
6 deliveries. The slivers fed to the machines are referred 
to as "ends," and the machine is .described as having 4, 5, 
or 6 "ends up." A machine of 5 deliveries with 6 "ends 
up" will take its stock from 30 cans of card sliver and de- 
liver "drawn sliver" into 5 cans. Fig. 11 is a diagram show 
ing how stock passes through a drawing frame. Like 
all the other illustrative diagrams, it is designed not to 
show the exact mechanism, but to illustrate the purpose 
for which the machine is made. It represents the action 
of one "delivery," in a frame having 6 ends up. 



52 

DRAWING FRAME. FIG. II. — LETTERING. 

A. Cans of Card Sliver. 

B. Slivers being fed. 

C. Separating Fingers. 

D. Sliver Spoon. 

F. Part of Stop Motion. 

K. Bottom Fluted "Front Roll," usually i f in. 
diameter. 

G, H, J. Bottom Fluted Rolls, usually i^ in. diame- 

ter. 
G', H', y, K'. Top Rolls. 
L. Cover Plate. 
M. Trumpet. 
N. Coiler Head. 
P. Calender Rolls. 
R. Trumpet Stop Motion. 
S. Stirrups. 

T. Weights hanging on top rolls. 
O. Can for receiving drawn sliver. 

DRAWING FRAriE. Card slivers B, B, (4 to 7, according to 
ProcEvSS. the "ends up," usually 6) are laid up, 

each one in its own division of the 
plate C, that is, between the "fingers." Each one then 
passes over its own spoon D. 

They all pass together between the bottom and top 
rolls. The top rolls are held down on the shver by 
weights hung with stirrups, as shown. The weights are 
usually 22 pounds for front roll, 20, 20 and 18 respec- 
tively for the second, third and back rolls. 

The front rolls K run faster than the back rolls and 
thus produce the drawing effect. 

Sliver leaves front roll K and passes through trum- 
pet M. 

Calender rolls P draw it through trumpet and deposit 
it through hole in cover plate to coiler N. 

Coiler N revolves in the same manner as coiler on 
cards (24) and coils the sliver in can O. 



3 



in 

CD 

o 



u 



t:5 
crq 

3 




54 

STOP MOTIONS. 47. Drawing frames are provided 
with stop motions, for the purpose of 
automatically stopping the machine when~ver certain 
conditions are not exactly right. There are mechanical 
and electrical stop motions. Figure 11 exhibits portions 
of the usual mechanical stop motions. To avoid com- 
plications, the entire mechanism is not shown. F is an 
arm, connected with shaft of machine in such a way that 
it oscillates around its pivot. As long as this arm is left 
free to oscillate, the machinery may run. But if this 
motion is interfered with, a strong spring is released, and 
shifts the belt to loose pulley and stops machine. The 
spoon D E is so weighted that when no sliver is passing, 
it assumes nearly a vertical position. When a sliver of 
proper weight is being drawn over it, the end D is 
depressed, as shown in figure 11. If sliver can should 
run empty, or if sliver should break, or if it should be 
much too light, the heavy end E would drop down, and the 
claw would arrest the oscillating arm F and stop the 
machine. Thus the machine will not run unless each 
one of the entire lot of (say 30) slivers is in place, and of 
approximately the correct weight. This is known as the 
"spoon (or back) stop motion." The spoon stop motion 
is of great value for preventing what is technically 
(througi'i erroneously) called "singles."* That is, the acci- 
dental feeding of 5 ends or less intO' one, where there 
should be 6. If this should occur, there would be a thin 
place in the drawn sliver, which would make itself felt 
throughout the succeeding processes, resulting finally 
in uneven yarn and cloth. A part of the "front (or trum- 
pet) stop motion" is shown at R. One end of R rests 



* A "single," anywhere in the mill, is the accidental feeding into 
a machine of a fewer number of doublings than is required. For 
example, a single occurs on a lapper when the machine is supposed to 
be working 4 laps, and i or 2 laps run out, so that only 3 or 2 laps are 
fed. A single occurs in a drawing frame when 6 slivers are being 
drawn into i, and i or more sliver, from some cause, fail, and 5 or 
less are fed instead of 6. The term originated in spinning and roving 
machinery, where only 2 ends are doubled into i. If one fails, of 
course what is left is "single." Its use has spread to include the 
broader cases. It is sometimes also called "singling." 



55 

under trumpet M, while the other end is weighted, and 
connects with an oscihating arm in the same manner as 
the spoon. As long as a normal sHver is passing through 
trumpet, friction in the trumpet holds trumpet and arm 
down, as shown. But if a lump or an extra heavy place 
occur in the sliver, it cannot pass through the small hole 
in the trumpet. The sliver thus breaks and the weighted 
end of R drops down, engages the oscillator and stops 
the machine. 

A "full can stop motion" is also generally applied to 
drawing frames. When can runs full, the coils of sliver 
pile up under coiler plate and lift it a small distance. A 
lever connection similar to R is attached to the coiler 
plate, so that when this plate rises, the lever engages 
oscillator and stops the machine as before. 

Equipped with all of these stop motions, it is impossi- 
ble for a drawing frame to run, unless all of the conditions 
are right. Therefore one attendant, usually a boy, may 
run several frames. 

48. Electric stop motions are sometimes supplied in 
place of mechanical. A small dynamo is driven from 
the machine. 

A dynamo generates no current unless its negative 
and positive poles are connected by a completed circuit. 
It is arranged that the cotton going through the drawing 
frame is passed between two- extra or special rolls at 
whatever places a stop motion is desired. These rolls 
are insulated in their bearings one from the other. When 
the cotton is going through properly it acts as an insula- 
tor between the two rolls. One roll is connected by 
wire with the positive pole of the dynamo, and the other 
to the negative. In a normal working condition the 
electric circuit is incomplete, in consequence of the cotton 
holding the rolls apart. If, however, the sliver breaks, 
or for any reason the special rolls touch each other, the 
circuit is completed, the dynamo instantly generates cur- 
rent, and the current, in turn, makes a magnet which 
attracts a bar of iron so arranged as to stop the machine. 



5.6 

Mechanical stop motions are mostly preferred, because 
they may be kept in order by the most ordinary workmen, 
while some familiarity with electricity is required in 
dealing with electric appHances of all kinds. There is 
actually less mechanism in an electric stop motion than 
in a mechanical, and it would always be preferred under 
conditions where the character of labor employed would 
warrant it. 

BOTTOn ROLLS. 49. The bottom fluted rolls are 
made of steel, in sections, but are jointed into one con- 
tinuous roll for the whole length of frame, having one 
boss for each delivery, and having necks for bearings 
between each boss, as shown in Fig. 12. Driving pulley 
is on the extended end of front roll, as shown in Fig. 14. 

TOP ROLLS. 50. Top rolls are made in short 

Leather Covered, lengths, one for each delivery. 
They are made of cast iron, and are 
covered first with felt, then with leather. They rest in 
open bearings on the bottom rolls, and are weighted 
<lown with stirrups, one on each end. The weights are 
so arranged that by turning a crank they may all be raised 
thus releasing top rolls. This is used at night, or when- 
ever frame is to be shut doAvn for any length of time. If 
weights were to continually hang on the top rolls, while 
frame is not running, the flutes in bottom roll would form 
grooves in the leather covers and damage them. Top 
rolls should be cleaned and varnished about once a week. 
The varnish* consists of glue and a fine gritty paint. It 
preserves the leather and prevents its becoming too 
smooth. 

A traverse motion is provided for traversing the slivers 
from one end to the other of the boss of a drawing roll. 
This is to prevent grooves being worn in any particular 
portion of roll, and to utilize as nearly as possible the 
entire lenoth of the roll. 



*See appendix for varnish recipe. 



58 

SHELL ROLLS. 51. Leather covered top rolls, 

as described in (50) may be 
either "solid," as at C, Fig. 12 or "shell," (or loose boss) 
as at D. Solid rolls are cheaper, and are supplied by the 
makers, unless otherwise specified. Shell rolls are some- 
times used for all lines of top rolls, but more generally for 
front line only. The advantage claimed for shell rolls 
is longer bearing surface, and better facility for lubrica- 
tion. The shell is made of cast iron, while the centre 
piece, called "arbor," is of steel. The weight stirrups 
hold arbor down stationary, while shell revolves. 

All shell rolls should be taken off about once a week 
and cleaned and oiled. 

TOP ROLLS. — Metallic. 52. Another style of top 

roll is shown at A, Fig. 12, 
known as "metallic top rolls." They are short lengths of 
steel fluted rolls made to take the place of leather covered 
top rolls. The object is to save the expense of covering 
with leather. Machines using metallic top rolls must 
have special fluted bottom rolls to match. The teeth 
mesh together, as seen at H in Fig. 12, like gear teeth. 
To prevent meshing too deep, there are smooth collars at 
each end, matching similar collars on bottom rolls. When 
weights are hung on these rolls, no damage can result, no 
matter how long they stand, hence it is not usual to sup- 
ply weight lifting devices with machines using metallic 
top rolls. Neither is a traverse motion necessary as when 
leather covered rolls are used. Fig. 12 shows leather 
covered rolls at B. It will be seen that bottom rolls 
designed for use with leather covered top rolls are not 
fluted so deep as those for metallic top rolls. 

Metallic top rolls have been widely introduced, and are 
much preferred by some superintendents, though some 
claim that the best work cannot be done by them. It 
is claimed by the makers that, owing to the positive grip 
of these rolls and their freedom from slippage, a greater 
production may be made than by the use of leather cov- 
ered rolls. It is evident that for the same number of rev- 



60 

olutions of front roll, more stock must pass through the 
metallic rolls, owing to the crimping effect. It is 
further around the metallic roll, in and out of the flutes, 
than around the smooth leather roll. Care must be taken 
when using- metallic rolls to see that the flutes are kept 
clean. If they should become clogged with lint, more or 
less cutting of fibre would result. For the same reason 
the rolls must not be allowed to rust or become other- 
wise rough or ragged. 

SETTING- 53. Referring to Fig. 11, the stands which 
carry the rolls are fastened to frame in such 
a way that they may be moved nearer together or further 
apart as required. This constitutes the "setting" of the 
rolls. The exact distance required from centre to centre 
of rolls depends on the length of fibre being worked. 
Fig. 13 shows a set of drawing rolls, separated by a 
sliver much exaggerated in thickness. This is not inten- 
ded as a picture of actual cotton fibres, but is made to 
show the relation of fibre lengths to setting of rolls. If 
A C are the front rolls, they are running faster than B D, 
a pair of the back rolls, and hence they have a tendency 
to pull the sliver from rolls B D. If fibre is i inch long, 
and the distance from centre of A to centre of B is any 
less than that, each fibre would at some time be held by 
both pairs of rolls and would be broken by the pull. In 
order to avoid this, the rolls must be so set that the dis- 
tance from centre to centre will exceed the length of fibre 
being worked. This distance must not be too great, not 
m.ore than i{^ in. for i inch staple. One of the objects 
of drawing is to stretch the curl out of fibre. There 
would be no stretching or drawing but for friction 
between the fibres. When the stretching takes place, 
there is always some slipping among the fibres. If the 
points where pull is exerted are too far apart, friction 
between fibres will be less, the slippage will be excessive, 
and the amount of stretch will thus be reduced. Judg- 
ment and experience must determine the proper setting 



61 

for drawing rolls, to suit the character of stock being 
worked. 



REPETITION 54. It has become general practice in 
OF PROCESS, the South, when railway heads are not 
used, to pass the sliver through the 
above described operation of drawing 3 times. This is 
known as "3 processes of drawing." The object is to 
more completely accomplish the purpose of doubling, 
stretching and parallelizing. If 3 processes are used, 
each time with 6 ends up, there will be a total doubling 
of 6 X 6 X 6^216 ends into one. If the draft of each 
machine is 6, the final sliver will weigh exactly the same 
per yard, as the first, and, on the reasoning in (14), it will 
be mucn more even. 

In some mills only two processes are used. Four or 
five might be used, but practice has demonstrated that 
three are about right. TwO' do not completely 
straighten the fibre, while four or more stretch the fibres 
so much that the sliver will not hold itself together suf- 
hciently for the subsequent process, being called "rotten 
sliver." 



VARIATION 55, A variation of 5 per cent, is allowa- 
IN WEIGHT. ble in the weight of card sliver, but not 
more than i^ per cent, should be per- 
mitted in drawn sliver from the third process, or say i 
grain per yard in sliver of 60 to 70 grains weight. Even 
this variation must not be allowed all on one side. Slivers 
should' be weighed every day one yard at a time in the 
same way as card sliver (35.) If the weight runs continu- 
ally too heavy, or continually too light, the fault must be 
corrected. Variations are caused by variations in card 
sliver; by spoon stop motions being out of order, thus 
allowing "singles" to pass through; by weights not hang- 
ing free, thus allowing top rolls to slip; by some 
unauthorized change in draft eear. 



62 

CALCULATIONS. 56. Fig. 14 is a diagram showing 

Draft. how the several rolls of a drawing 

frame are geared together. The rolls are spread out in 
an unnatural position for the purpose of clearly exhib- 
iting the way the gearing is connected. To calculate 
draft, follow the rule in (19). Consider the back roll the 
driver, and calender rolls the point of delivery. With the 
dimensions given in Fig. 14, the formula for draft would 
be: 

3 X 48 X 90 X 24 X 45 

i^ X 40 X 22 X 51 X 45 
This works out 6.16, and means that the weight of i yard 
of sliver delivered is -g-.-fg- as much as the weight of i yard 
in length of all the combined slivers fed into that delivery. 
If 6 ends are fed together, the weight per yard of sHver 
delivered is -g-f^ as heavy as i of the 6 ends fed, or 
expressed decimally .97 as heavy. If the original card 
sliver weighs 65 grains, the first drawn sliver would v»feigh 
.97 X 65=63; the second would weigh .97 x 63=61; 
and the third .97 x 61^59. 

Constant, 5,7. Referring to Fig. 14, the gear 40 
which is marked in the engraving "draft," 
is the one that is generally changed to make a change in 
the draft of the machine. In order to facilitate calcula- 
tions in making these changes, the "constant" for the 
frame is found in the same manner as in (20) and (37,) that 
is by taking the formula for draft, given in (56) and leav- 
ing out the draft gear, thus: 

3 x 48 X 90 X 24 X 45 

li X — X 22 X 51 X 45 
This works out 246.4, which is of course 40 times the for- 
mer result. This number 246.4 is the "constant" or 
"dividend" for that particular machine. If draft is 
given, and it is required to find the draft gear that would 
produce this draft, divide 246.4 by draft. If draft gear 
is given, and it is required to find what draft it would pro- 
duce, divide 246.4 by draft gear. Suppose it be required 
to make a draft of 6; dividing 246.4 by 6 gives 41. i, and 



64 

it would be necessary to use a gear of 41 teeth. Using 
gear 41, the exact draft would be 246.4^-41=6.01. 
Using a gear of 42. the draft would be 246.4-=-42=5.87 

The gearing plan shown in Fig. 14, where some of the 
gears are at one end of rolls, and some at the other, is not 
universally adopted. Some builders prefer them this way, 
while others prefer to put all the gearing at one end. 

Three draft gears, varying- by i tooth, are usually 
furnished with each machine. 

58. In the calculations above, the draft is computed 
between the back rolls and the calender rolls, without 
taking" any notice of the way in which the entire draft is 
divided between the several pairs of rolls. This is all that 
is necessary in the mill, because the machine is so 
designed that whatever the change made in total draft, 
the other drafts are divided up in the same proportion. 
But it is interesting to examine the various partial drafts 
to see how they are distributed. Referring to Fig. 14, 
the draft between back roll and 3rd roll is 

i^ X 22 

= I ^2. 

i^ X 18 



The draft between 3rd and 2nd is 
ii X 18 X 34 



i-J X 22 X il 



1-55 



The draft between 2nd and front is 
if- X 18 X 48 X 90 



= 3-17 



if X 34 X 40 X 22 

The draft between front and calender is 

3 X 24 X 45 ^ J.03 
If X 51 X 45 

Therefore, the entire draft is 1.22 x 1.55 x 3.17 x 1.03 
:=6.i6, which is the same result as before. 

It is the custom with many superintendents to figure 
draft of a drawing frame simply between back and front 
rolls, ignoring the draft between front roll and calender 
roll. But this is too great an error to be permitted. In 
the case above, the draft, ignoring calender roll, would be 



65 

5-99 instead of 6.16. This error in each of the three 
processes would accumulate and lead to trouble in calcu- 
lating weights. 

59. The above calculations all relate to frames equip- 
ped with leather covered top rolls. When metallic top 
rolls are used, the drafts all turn out in practice greater 
than they should when figured by the above formula. It 
has been pointed out (52) that metalhc top rolls deliver 
more sliver than leather covered rolls of the same diam- 
eter, and this fact has been advanced as the reason for the 
extra draft. This is not an adequate reason. The real 
reason would seem to be that the flutes of metallic rolls, 
meshing into each other, and forcing the sliver down into 
the flutes, stretch the fibres and thus produce a small 
draft in addition to and independent of the main draft 
between the separate rolls. No exact rule has been 
found for figuring the draft with metallic top rolls. The 
draft is something I'ike 12 per cent greater than with 
leather covered rolls. The exact result must always be 
determined by experience for the particular conditions 
in question. 

Production. 60. As shown in calculations for cards, 
(40), production depends upon speed and 
circumference of delivering roll. This would be the calen- 
der roll. But the custom has become firmly established 
to calculate production of drawing frames from the front 
roll. This gives a result about 3 per cent, too low, but it 
is near enough for calculating production. The speed of 
front roll may be fixed at 150 to 400 revolutions, 350 
being a good average for Southern work. The circum- 
ference of front roll is i# x 3.1416=4.32 inches. At 350 
revolutions it will deliver 4.32 x 350=1512 inches per 
mmute or 1512 x 60 x 11=997.920 inches per day 
of II hours or 997.920^-36=27, 720yards. If sliverweighs 
65 grains per yard, the weight will be 27.720 x 65^1,- 
801,800 grains or 1.801,800-4-7,000=^257 pounds 



66 

Expressed as a formula, the above calculation would be 

i# X ^,1416 X ^qo X 60 X II X 6s 

^ -^ ^ ^ ^= 257 pounds. 

36 X 7000 

This is for each delivery and for running every minute 
of the time. But it is usual to estimate 20 per cent, loss 
of time on a drawing frame. This would reduce the 
above amount by 51 pounds, and leave as a good days 
work under these conditions 206 pounds. Ordinarily it 
is assumed that one delivery of drawing (in each process) 
will take the stock from one card. For example, if a mill 
has 12 cards, it would need about 12 deliveries of dra wing- 
in each process. If there are tO' be three processes of 
drawing, there should be in all 36 deliveries in the draw- 
ing frames. 

GENERAL DATA. 61. A drawing frame is generally 
supplied with a countershaft fas- 
tened to legs under the machine. A short i^ inch belt 
from this shaft drives tight and loose pulleys on front 
rolls, as seen in Fig. 14. The receiving pulley on coun- 
tershaft is about 16x3 and runs about 250. Sometimes 
two frames or heads are set together, end to end, and 
the countershaft extended, so that it may drive both 
frames. 

A six delivery frame will occupy a space about 12 feet 
long and 4^ feet wide, including 12 inch can and coiler 
plate on front or delivery side, and not including cans on 
back side. The back cans will occupy a space of about 
4 feet more, so that drawing frames should stand about 
<*-^ to 9 feet apart from centre to centre. 

Three lines of drawing frames are generally placed 
parallel with each other in such a way that the cans of 
sliver from cards may be conveniently put behind the 
first frame, and cans delivered from first frame may be put 
behind the second, and cans from the second put behind 
the third, all with the least moving of stock. Three 
frames of 6 deliveries each would occupy a space, inclu- 
ding cans, of 24 to 27 feet wide and 12 feet long. 



67 

In a small mill, all of the three short drawing frames 
are sometimes set end to end, fronting first one side and 
then the other, as shown in Fig. 15. This is called the 
"zig-zag" setting. It economizes space and power, and 
is a very good arrangement when the space available is 
of the right shape. 

62. The "hand" of a drawing frame is determined by 
standing in front of the frame where stock is delivered, 
and noting position of driving pulley on front roll. If 
it is on the right, it is a right hand frame, if it is on left, 
it is a left hand frame. 

63. Drawing frames weigh about 400 pounds per 
delivery, and with leather covered top rolls (Front Line 
Shell Rolls) cost about $60 per delivery. Metallic top rolls 
cost $15 per delivery in addition to the above. 

SPECIFICATIONS. 64. The following is a sample 

blank to be filled out in order- 
ing drawing frames: 

Total Number of Heads 

Number of Right Hand Heads 

Number of Left Hand Heads 

Number of Heads to be coupled togeth-^r 

Number of Deliveries in each Head 

Total Number of Deliveries 

Number of Processes 

Number of Deliveries in each Process 

Number of ends up, (or ends doubled into one) 

Number of Lines Bottom Rolls (4 is usual) 

Diameter of Bottom Rolls: Front . . . ; 2nd . . . ; 3rd . . . ; 

Back 

Diameter of Top Rolls 

Distance centre to centre of roll stands 

Diameter of Can 

Weight Releasing Arrangement (yes or no) 

Diameter and Face of Receiving Pulley on Counter- 
shaft 

Speed of Counter Shaft 



68 



Speed of Front Roll 

Belted from above or below 

Weight of Card Sliver— grains per yard 

Weight of Drawn Sliver — last process 

Production required in 1 1 hours 

Space occupied — length over all ■• 

Space occupied— width of all frames, including cans, 

Stop Motions Electrical or Mechanical 

With Full Can Stop Motion (yes or no) 

Shell Top Rolls, Front Line or All Lines 

SHver Traverse (yes or no) 

Leather Covered or Metallic Top Rolls 

Shipping Instructions 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 




:f-.--n 



Fig. 15. Zig-Zag Drawing. 



CHAPTER V. 

IRatlwa^ Ibeabs, 

65. As noticed in (39) cards formerly delivered sliver 
into a "railway trough," which carried 8 to 12 slivers 
together to the railway head, where they were consolida- 
ted, drawn out and delivered by the coder into a can. 

On account of the fact that several cards delivered 
their slivers together, if one card should stop, the weight 
of the aggregated slivers would be less. It was there- 
fore necessary to make the railway head self-adjusting, to 
compensate for such irregularities, as well as any other 
irregularities that might be caused by imperfect carding. 
This adjusting mechanism is the only essential feature 
in which the railway head differs from the drawing frame. 
Other differences consist in mechanical arrangements and 
details. If arranged to receive sliver from the railway 
trough, the back side is made to accommodate wide flat 
slivers instead of small round ones, as in case of drawing. 
Unless otherwise specified, a railway head has but one 
deliver). This is a "single head." There are also 
"double heads," which have two deliveries. There are 
usually more "ends up" or doublings in railway heads 
than in drawing frames, and a correspondingly greater 
draft. 

66. Railway heads are sometimes made to receive 
sliver from cans, in the same manner as drawing frames. 
This is a more recent adaptation. When coders and cans 
were introduced on cards, railway heads were retained, 
though the principal reason for their existence, as such, 
had passed away viz: equalizing the weight of sliver when 
one card in the set should stop. When using cans, as 
many cards as desired may be stopped, so long as the 
requisite number of cans (generally about 12) are kept 
behind the railway head. The machine still served a 
good purpose in equalizing imperfect carding, until the 



71 

more recent and perfect cards were introduced. Now, 
however the sliver from the best revolving top fiat card 
is as regular in weight before passing through a railway 
head as after. Its only use in this case is for the drawing 
effects, and hence it has been replaced by a more conven- 
ient machine— the drawing frame. The drawing frame was 
also used in connection with the railway head as a process 
immediately following it. One process of drawing in 
addition to railway head was formerly considered suffi- 
cient; but afterwards two processes proved superior, and 
finally three processes of drawing without railway head 
came to be the standard practice. 

67. The distinguishing feature of the railway head is 
the evener, which is shown in Fig. 16. After under- 
standing the gearing on drawing frame, it is easy to see 
how the evener on railway head controls the draft of the 
machine and as consequence the weight of sliver deliv- 
ered. The trumpet A is moved forward or backward 
according as slivers fed are heavy or light. This move- 
ment ol trumpet shifts sheath E, by means of lever G and 
puts into c'ction the pawl B or C according as it moves 
forward or backward. These pawls are kept in constant 
motion by eccentric F, ready to turn gear D either way. 
When gear is turned, the cone-belt-guide shifts belt 
toward one or the other end of cones, thus varying the 
speed of front roll and the draft of machine. Suppose 
sliver fed to machine should become too light, the fric- 
tion in trumpet A would be less and the counterweight 
on trumpet would pull it back. This causes pawl B to 
engage with gear D and turn it in such direction as will 
shift cone belt toward large end of top or driven cone. 
This drives top cone slower and decreases the draft for the 
length of time that the sliver fed remains too light. 
When sliver returns to normal weight, friction in trumpet 
is increased, the trumpet moves forward to normal posi- 
tion and releases pawl B. Should sliver become too 
heavy, friction in trumpet is further increased, trumpet is 
moved forward thus causing pawl C to act which produ- 
ces the opposite effect from pawl B. 







Fio-. i6. Railway Head Evener. 



73 

68. The nomenclature of different parts is the same 
in railway heads as in drawing, and the same practice 
obtains in the matters of stop motion, solid or shell top 
rolls, metallic top rolls, roving traverse weight releasing 
device, etc. 

CALCULATIONS. 69. Following the same method 

Draft. as in (56), and referring to Fig. 

17, considering the back roll, the driver, and calender 
rolls as the deHvery, the total draft is : 

2^ X 48 X 44 X 36 
li X 14 X 30 X 43 

This works out 9.36. 

The calculation is based on the cone belt being in the 
middle of its travel, the same as in calculations for picker 
(19). If belt be shifted to large end of bottom or driving 
cone, the draft as above will be fx 9.36=18.72. If on 
small end of bottom cone, f x 9.36=4.68. Thus there 
is a range of drafts from 4.68 to 18.72 without changing 
any gears, and the alteration may be made by changing 
the connection between trumpet and belt shifter, seen at 
G, Fig. 15. But it is best to figure the draft required as 
above, with belt in the middle of its travel. This gives 
the evener the widest possible range to equalize weights. 

Constant. 70. In the same manner as previously 
explained, (20), (37), (57). the constant is 
found by leaving out of formula in (69) the draft gear, 
thus: 

2| x 48 X 44 X — 

i^ X 14 x 30 X 43 
This works out .2599, which is the constant for that par- 
ticular railway head. It will be observed that, owing to 
the particular arrangement of gears in this case, the draft 
gear appears in the numerator of the formula, instead of 
in the denominator, as has been heretofore the case. 



Calendar Roi-ls 





Fig. 17. Railway Head Gearing. 



75 

Therefore the CONSTANT MUST BE MULTIPLIED 
BY THE DRAFT GEAR TO FIND DRAFT; OR 
THE DRAFT MUST BE DIVIDED BY THE CON- 
STANT TO FIND THE DRAFT GEAR. Thus it is 
necessary to proceed with great care in using the con- 
stant for this particular arrangement. In the arrange- 
ment of draft gearing of nearly all machines in the cotton 
mill, the constant must be divided. In those cases the 
smaller the gear, the greater the draft, and the Hghter the 
stock delivered. But the reverse is true in a machine 
geared as Fig. 17, that is the smaller the gear, the smaller 
the draft, and the heavier the stock delivered. The con- 
stant above found .2599 multiplied by the draft gear 36 
gives draft 9.36, the same as shown in (69). 

If a railway head geared as above is delivering a 72 
grain sliver with 36 draft gear, a change of i tooth will 
make a change of 2 grains, that is i tooth less will make 
sliver 2 grains heavier, and i tooth more will make sliver 
2 grains lighter. 

Production. 71. The same formula given for drawing 
frames (60) will give production of railway 
heads for full 1 1 hours run. Assuming the same speed of 
front roll 350, and same weight of sliver, 65 grains, the 
full II hours run would give, as in (60), 257 pounds. On 
drawing frame an allowance of 20 per cent, was made for 
stoppage; but for railway heads, 10 per cent, is about 
right. As it has but one delivery, it is not so- liable to 
stoppage from broken ends. Allowing 10 per cent, from 
the above calculation, the production would be about 
232 pounds. Under most circumstances railway heads 
run faster than the above and turn out about 400 pounds 
per day. On most other machines in the cotton mill, the 
speed of front roll is constant and the back roll is made to 
vary for producing changes in draft. But in the railway 
head illustrated in Fig. 17, it will be seen that changes in 
draft are made by leaving back roll constant and varying 
front roll. This will make a variation in production as 



76 

draft is varied. Hence when it is desired to find the 
exact production of any given raihvay head the front roU 
must be counted while at its average speed on the partic- 
ular work it is doing. 

GENERAL DATA. 72. A single railway head is about 3 
feet long and 3-| feet wide over all, 
including front can, or 7 feet including front can and 12 
cans behind. The machine may be made for cans 10 to 
20 inches in diameter, but are mostly made for 12 inch 
cans, to correspond with other cans in the mill, which are 
now almost always 12 inches. The weight is about 1,000 
pounds. The receiving pulleys on driving shaft are usually 
made for 2 inch belt, but sometimes for 3 inch belt. The 
pulleys may be had from 10 to 20 inches in diameter, as 
required. They should run 200 to 600 revolutions per 
minute according to draft of machine. The speed of 
driving shaft is governed by the allowable speed of front 
roll. A good average speed of front roll is 400. Geared 
as in Fig. 16, the driving shaft must run about 266 to run 
front roll 400. The above data apply to the single rail- 
way head. Double heads are practically two single 
heads. The only difference is that one driving shaft 
runs both heads. The single heads cost about $200., and 
double heads about $370. These prices are for leather 
covered rolls, front line shell rolls, others solid. For 
metallic top rolls add $25.00 for single head and $50.00 
for double head. 

SPECIFICATIONS. 73. Following is a sample 

blank to fill out in ordering railway heads. 

Number of Single Heads 

Number of Double Heads 

Number of Right Hand Heads 

Number of Left Hand Heads 

Number of Ends up (or ends doubled into one) 

Number of Lines Bottom Rolls (4 is usual) 

Diameter of Bottom Rolls: Front . . . ; 2nd. . . ; 3rd. . . ; 
Back . . . ; 



77 



Diameter of Top Rolls 

Diameter of Can 

Weight Releasing- Arrangement (yes or no) 
Diameter and Face of Receiving Pulley . . . . 

Speed of Same 

Average speed of Front Roll 

Belted from Above or Below 

Sliver fed from Cans or Trough 

Weight of Sliver Fed 

Weight of Sliver Delivered 

Production Required in 1 1 Hours 

Space Occupied — length over all 

Space occupied — width over front can only . 
Stop Motions, Mechanical or Electrical . . . . 
With Full Can Stop Motion (yes or no) . . . . 
Shell Top Rolls — Front Lines or All Lines . . 

Sliver Traverse (yes or no) 

Leather Covered or Metallic Top Rolls . . . . 

Shipping Instructions 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 



CHAPTER VI. 

Ibanke an^ IRumbere. 

74. In the picker room the weight of stock is expressed 
in ounces per yard or in pounds per lap; at the cards and 
drawing" the weight is expressed in grains per yard. The 
next process is skibbing. 

Here, the stock receives its first twisting. Here it is 
wound on bobbins, and assumes a semblance of yarn. At 
this stage, it begins to be reckoned in the same manner as 
yarn, viz: at so many hanks per pound. A hank (of cot- 
ton) is 840 yards. If product of a Fly Frame (See 82) is 
of such a weight that 840 yards make i pound, there is i 
hank of it in a pound, and it is said to be "i hank." If 420 
yards weigh i pound, there is but -J hank in a pound, and 
this particular stock is known as "^ hank" or more gener- 
ally ".5 hank." If 1680 yards weigh i pound, there are 2 
hanks in a pound, and it is called "2 hank." When it is 
finally spun into yarn, the same method of reckoning is 
used, that is, the number of hanks per pound; but it is 
then referred to, not as 2 hank or 40 hank, as the case 
may be, but as "No. 2" or "No. 40." Sometimes it is 
expressed as 2s. or 40s., etc. (It is sometimes also known 
as "coimts.") This difference in notation between 
"hanks" and "numbers" is purely arbitrary. The slub- 
bing and roving might with equal propriety be expressed 
in "numbers;" and theyarn might be expressed in "hanks." 
The terms mean the same, but custom dictates the use of 
the word "hank" for slubbing and roving, and the word 
"number" for yarn. This is universal, and docs not 
depend upon the fineness of the stock. For example, 
roving containing as much as 20 hanks per pound is 
called "20 hank roving," while yarn containing but 4 
hanks per pound, is called "Number 4," or "4s." 

75. To find the "hank" of slubbing and roving or the 



79 

"number" of yarn, is simply to find how many hanks of 
the particular stock in question there are in i pound. A 
hank is a definite measure like a mile. A hank is 840 
yards, a mile is 1760 yards. If we want to know how 
many miles of yarn there are in a pound, we could first 
find how many yards there are, and divide the number of 
yards by 1760. The result would be miles per pound. In 
the same manner, having the number of yards in the 
pound, we may divide this number by 840, and the 
result will be hanks per pound, or technically, the "num- 
ber" of the yarn in question. 

The above paragraph contains all that need be given as 
a definition of "hank" and "number." It now remains 
to describe the methods in use for practically making the 
necessary weights and measurements to- determine the 
hank or number of any particular roving or yarn. 

76. It would be inconvenient to weigh up a whole 
pound of roving and measure it. It would be more con- 
venient to measure up a hank (840 yards) and weigh it. 
If it weighs i pound, it would be "i hank" roving, if .1 
pound, "10 hank" roving, because it would require 10 
hanks of this kind to weigh a pound. If it weighed 10 
pounds, it would be ".i hank" roving, because it requires 
only .1 of a hank of this kind to weigh a pound. From 
the above, it appears that the "hank" or "number" may 
be obtained by dividing i (pound) by the weight in 
POUNDS of I hank. Since there are 7000 grains in one 
pound, it follows that the same result may be arrived at 
by dividing 7000 (grains) by the weight in GRAINS of i 
hank. For example, if 840 yards of roving weighed 7000 
grains, the "hank" would be 7000-^-7000=1, as before. 
If it weighed 700 grains (.1 of a pound) the "hank" 
would be 70oo-^-70o^IO, as before. But it is inconven- 
ient to measure up as much as 840 yards of roving. We 
might measure 120 yards (y-hank) and multiply the 
result by 7, or 12 yards (y^ hank) and multiply result by 
70. Suppose for example 12 yards ( yV hank) of roving 
weighed 20.3 grains. Multiply the 20.3 by 70 to find the 



80 

weight in grains of the whole hank and divide 7000 by the 
result, thus: td-^s^^tt • This is the same as |^|.|-, and 
works out 4.92 hank. Hence we have the rule: 
TO FIND THE HANK OF ROVING DIVIDE 100 
BY THE WEIGHT IN GRAIN OF 12 YARDS. 

Suppose, again, that 120 yards, (or 1 hank) of roving 
or yarn weigh 40 grains. Multiply the 40 by 7 to find 
weight in grains of the whole hank, and divide 7000 by the 
result, thus: ^|x°|. This is the same as ^-, and 
works out 25 hank or No. 25. Hence we have the rule: 
TO FIND THE "NUMBER" OF YARN, DIVIDE 
1000 BY THE WEIGHT IN GRAINS OF 120 YARDS. 

One of the above rules produces exactly the same 
result as the other, but in determining the number of yam 
it is better to use 120 yards than 12 yards, in order to 
obtain a better average. For the same reason, it would 
be advantageous to take 120 yards of roving, but that 
much would generally be too bulky to manage easily on 
the small scales in use in cotton mills, so that it is usual to 
take 12 yards. 

In any case the object is simply to weigh a good average 
sample. The practice varies according to taste. Some 
Superintendents reel off 12 yards of roving from 4 bobbins 
at one time, and divide the weight of the whole by 4 to find 
weight of 12 yards. In the same manner, they some- 
times reel off 120 yards of yarn from 4 to 7 bobbins at one 
time, and divide the weight of the whole by 4 or 7 to 
obtain the weight of 120 yards. The result gives the 
average of the lot of bobbins tested. But it is better 
practice tO' take the weights separately, for the reason 
that this gives not only the average result, but also the 
degree of variation between the different bobbins, which 
is important information. 

The Superintendent should keep a book, in which, is 
recorded twice each day the result of each sampling or 
"sizing" of the fine roving and of the yarns. 

jy. For measuring roving for purposes of determining 
the hank, a roving reel, is used. It consists of a wheel 



81 

exactly -J yard in circumference, turning on an axis. Res- 
ting on top of it is a small heavy roller, whose axis runs 
in slots, so that roller may play up and down. The reel 
is placed near front edge of a table. The bobbin stands 
on the floor, directly under it, so that roving may freely 
unwind, without turning bobbin. The end of roving is 
fed between the wheel and roller. The wheel is slowly 
turned by hand 24 revolutions, thus deHvering 12 yards. 

78. For measuring yarn, a yarn reel is used. It is i| 
yards in circumference. It is provided with dial, graduated 
in yards and a bell which rings just before the 120 yards are 
measured. The yarn is automatically guided from bob- 
bin in such a way as to distribute it evenly on the arms of 
reel, and not pile up and increase its circumference. 

It will be noticed that the method of numbering roving 
and yarn is a reciprocal one, that is, the larger the number 
the lighter the stock. Ten hank roving is lighter than 5 
hank. Number 20 yarn is lighter or finer than number 
10. In the case of laps and sliver, the reverse is true. 
Eighty grain sliver is obviously heavier than 40 grains. 
This distinction must be kept constantly in view to avoid 
confusion, especially at the transition period, in passing 
from drawn sliver, at so many grains per yard, to slubbing 
at so many hanks per pound. 

79. If a slubber has a draft of 4, and receives its stock 
at 65 grains per yard, it will deliver it at 16.25 grains per 
yard. But stock delivered by slubber and all subsequent 
machines is rated,- not in grains per yard, but in hanks per 
pound. One is reduced to the other by following the 
rule in (76.) If i yard weighs 16.25 grains, 12 yards will 
weigh 195 grains. Dividing 100 by 195, gives .5128 
which is the "hank" of stock delivered. This means that 
it requires a little over half a hank (840 x .5128=431 
yards) to weigh a pound. 

The transition may also be made in the weight of sliver. 
If sliver weighs 65 grains per pound, 12 yards will weigh 
780 grains. Dividing 100 by 780 gives .1282 as the 
"hank" of sliver. With draft of 4 on slubber, the hank of 



82 

stock delivered will be 4 x .1282=. 5 128, which is the 
same as by the other method. 

80. It was shown in (5) that the draft of a machine is 
the quotient obtained by dividing weight per yard of 
stock received by weight per yard of stock dehvered. 
From this, it follows that the weight per yard of stock 
received DIVIDED by draft will give weight per yard of 
stock delivered. Now, since the notation by ''hank" is 
the reverse of that by weight per yard, the ''HANK" of 
stock received MULTIPLIED by draft gives "hank" of 
stock delivered. This is true only when as many ends are 
delivered by machines, as are fed tO' it, that is when there 
is no doubhng. If there is doubhng, the HANK OF 
STOCK RECEIVED MULTIPLIED BY DRAFT OF 
MACHINE AND DIVIDED BY THE DOUBLINGS 
GIVES HANK OF STOCK DELIVERED. For 
example, suppose two ends of .51 hank roving are doubled 
into one on a machine having a draft of 5, the hank of 
stock delivered would be .51 x 5-f-2=i.27. 

Tables are given in the appendix for convenience in find- 
ing the "hank" of any roving from the weight in grains of 
12 yards, and the "number" of any yarn from the weight 
in grains of 120 yards. 



CHAPTER VII. 

SlubMng anb IRoving* 

8i. From the drawing frames, cans of sliver are taken 
to the slubber, which is a machine having rolls similar to 
the drawing frame, and having spindles, by which the 
stock, now called "slubbing" is twisted and wound on 
bobbins. From the slubber, these bobbins are taken to 
the roving frames, where the stock is further drawn out 
and twisted and wound on the other smaller bobbins. The 
stock is then called "roving." There are generally three 
processes with these machines: one of slubbing, one of 
intermediate roving and one of fine roving. The work 
done in all of these processes is exactly the same, viz: 
drawing, twisting and winding on bobbins. Each succes- 
sive machine delivers finer (or lighter weight) stock than 
it receives. 

82. The slubber is built heavier than the other 
machines, and takes its stock out of cans in the form of a 
sliver, while the others take their stock from bobbins 
which have been made by the preceding machine. 

All of these machines have a part called a "flyer," which 
is attached to the spindle and revolves with it. From 
this circumstance, the general term "fly-frame" is applied 
to both slubbers and roving frames. The roving frames 
alone are sometimes called "speeders." Roving frames 
are sub-divided into "intermediates" and "fine fra,mes." 
The intermediate is the first roving frame after the slub- 
ber, and is built somewhat lighter than the slubber, and 
heavier than the succeeding machines, which are designa- 
ted "fine frames." 

In the production of very fine yarn, (above No. 60) 
another process of roving is added. This is known as 
"jack roving." The machines are called "Jack-frames" 
and are identical with the other roving frames, except for 
being smaller and making smaller bobbins. They are not 
much used in the South. 



84 

ROVIN(j FRAHE.— FIG. i8. — LETTERING. 

A. Creel. 

B. Bobbins in Creel. 

C. Guide Rod for Roving. 

D. Guide Eye in Roving Traverse. 

E. Bottom Fluted Rolls. 

F. Leather Covered Top Rolls. 

G. Roll Stands. 
H. Flyers. 

J. Spindles. 

K. Bobbins Being Spun. 

L. Gears Driving Spindles. 

M. Gears Driving Bobbins. 

N. Toe Gear on Spindle. 

P. Bobbin Bevel Gear. 

O. Top View of Spindles and Gearing. 

ROVING FRAME.— Process. 

Bobbins are put in creel, the roving passed over guide 
rods, through guide eyes and between bottom and top 
rolls. Generally two ends are rtm together and drawn 
into one. 

The rolls, having differing speed, as in drawing frames, 
draw the stock finer and deliver it to the flyer. 

The engraving shows two ends being drawn into one 
and carried to the spindle in outer row. The spindles 
in inner row are supplied in the same manner. 

The guide eye D, through which the roving is threaded, 
has a slow traverse motion to prevent roving being fed 
through rolls continually at one point, and wearing a 
grove in the leather roll. 

The flyer is attached to top end of revolving spindle. 
It has a hole in the top end and through one leg. The 
roving passes through this, and through the eye in 
presser foot, which is a part of the flyer. 

Bobbin seems to be connected with the spindle, but it is 
driven separately. 

The roving is twisted by the combined revolving of 







.^> 





:^l 



Fig. 1 8. Roving Frame Section. 



86 

flyer and bobbin. It is wound up on bobbin by reason of 
the variation in speed between flyer and bobbin. 

Bobbin is traversed up and down while roving is being 
wound, so that roving will lie in smooth layers. 

83. In order to make clear the reason for driving bob- 
bins at a variable speed, and to show the way the arrange- 
ment operates to wind roving uniformly on the bobbin 
refer to figure 19, which shows the two ways in which 
this result may be accomplished. On the left is a flyer and 
bobbin arranged for "bobbin lead." Both bobbin and 
flyer run "right handed," that is in the direction of the 
hands of a clock, or as it is sometimes called, "clock-wise." 
If bobbin made exactly the same number of revolutions 
as flyer, no roving would be wound. In the case of "bob- 
bin lead," the bobbin is running faster than flyer, and hence 
is winding roving on itself right handed. The presser foot 
A is seen pointing in the direction of motion of flyer, and at 
first sight, might seem to be running its end against the 
roving on bobbin, thus tending to rough it up. But as bob- 
bin is running faster than flyer, roving is paying out in the 
direction that presser foot is pointing, and is being wiped 
from under the end. If flyer is running 1200 and bobbin 
1300, the winding effect is the same as if flyer were 
standing still, and bobbin running 100. 

On the right in Fig. 19 is shown a flyer and bobbin 
arranged for "flyer lead." As in the other case, both are 
revolving right handed, but now the flyer is traveling 
faster than the bobbin. The presser B is turned in an 
opposite direction from presser A, so that roving will pay 
out in the direction presser is pointing. This arrange- 
ment lays the roving on the bobbin in a left hand direction 
though all the motions are right handed. In this 
instance the relative motion between bobbin and flyer is 
the same as if the bobbin were standing still and flyer 
were running right handed. For example, if flyer is 
running 1200 and bobbin iioo, the winding efifect is the 
same as if bobbin were standing still, and flyer running 
TOO. This method has been named "flver lead," but this 






O 

< 

crq 



a 
5' 





name is somewhat misleading. The speed of flyer 
remains constant under all circumstances, (both in bobbin 
lead and flyer lead) but in the case of flyer lead, the 
bobbin runs slower than flyer. It might be appropriately 
called "bobbin follow," in contradistincdon to "bobbin 
lead." For good reasons, based on the mechanism of 
the machines, "bobbin lead" is now universally used and 
in the discussion of the machines they will all be treated 
as bobbin lead machines. The calculations on varying 
speeds of bobbin, however, are the same in either case. 

84. The front roll is delivering roving at a constant 
number of inches per minute, and this constant amount 
must be wound on the bobbin. This means that the bob- 
bin must lead the flyer the same constant number of 
INCHES per minute. If the bobbin always remained 
the same diameter, this would mean that the bobbin must 
lead the flyer a constant number of REVOLUTIONS 
per minute. But as the roving is wound on, the size of 
bobbin increases, and hence the number of revolutions 
necessary to wind a given amount becomes less and less. 
Therefore it l^ecomes necessary to provide some means 
for reducing the speed of bobbin as it fills up. (In the 
case of flyer lead, it is necessary to increase speed of 
bobbins as they fill up.) The decrease in speed must be 
exactly proportional to the increase in size of bobbin. 
This is accomplished by the use of the cones X and Y, 
Fig. 20. When bobbins are empty, the belt is on large 
end of cone X, which causes bobbins to run fast. As they 
fill up, the belt is gradually moved toward small end, thus 
decreasing speed of bobbins. It will be noticed that the 
shape of the cones is peculiar, the top one, or driver, 
being concave or hollowing, while the bottom one is con- 
vex or rounding. For mathematical reasonS; not 
necessary to discuss here, these shapes are found to be 
necessary in order to make the decrease of speed exactly 
proportional to the increase of diameter of bobbins. 

85. Considerable mechanism is required for perform- 



89 

ing the comparatively simple operations necessary in 
making roving. 

Fig. 20 shows most of the mechanism, 

GEARING PLAN ROVING FRAHE.— FIGS. 20 TO 23— 

Lettering. 

A. Driving Shaft (sometimes erroneously called 
"Jack Shaft.") 

B. Twist Gear. 

C. Intermediate Gear. 

D. Middle Top Cone Gear. 

E. End Top Cone Gear. 

F. Large Gear on Front Roll. 

G. Small Gear on Front Roll. 
H. Crown Gear. 

J. Draft Gear. 

K. Back Roll Gear. 

L. Cone Gear. 

M. Intermediate Gear. 

N. Driven Gear on Jack Shaft. 

O. Tension Gear on Jack Shaft. 

P. Smi Wheel or Stud Wheel. 

R. Bevel in Compound. 

Q. Driving Bevel for Compound. 

P. R. O. Differential or Compound or "J^^k in the 

Box." 

S. Bobbin Driving Gear. 

T. Intermediate. 

U. Bobbin Shaft Gear. 

V. Bobbin Skew Bevel. 
W. Bobbin Bevel Gear. 

X. Top Cone. 

Y. Bottom Cone. 

Z. Cone Belt Shipper, 

a. Spindle Driving Gear. 

b. Intermediate. 

d. Spindle Shaft Gear. 

e. Spindle Skew Bevel. 



90 

f. Spindle Bevel or Toe Bevel. 

g. Lifter Bevel on Jack Shaft. 

h. Lifter Bevel on Upright Shaft. 

1. Strike Pinion. 

m, m. Strike Bevels. 

n. Broad Pinion for Lifter. 

p. Driven Gear for Lifter Train, 

q. Lay Gear. 

r. Intermediate. 

s. Lifting Gear. 

t. Lifting Rack Pinion. 

u. Lifting Rack. 

a' Two-Bar, x\ttaciiea to Bobbin Rail. 

b' Taper Rack Bar or "Monkey Tail." 

c'. Taper Pinion. 

d'. Adjusting Screw for Pigeon Wing in upper cradle. 

e'. Adjusting Screw for Builder Weight in upper 
cradle. 

f. Pigeon Wing. 

g'. Lower Cradle. 

h'. Builder Weights. 

a' to h'. Builder or "Box of Tricks." 

q'. Shipper Rack Pinion. 

s'. Drag Weight. 

86. For the purpose of making the explanation 
clearer, the gearing plan has been divided into sections. 

Fig. 20 shows the entire gearing. 

Fig. 21 shows the gears from A to K which drive the 
bottom rolls, and also shows the gears from a to f which 
drive the spindles. 

Fig. 22 shows the gears involved in driving the bobbins, 
lifting train, which traverses the bobbin rail up and down. 

All of the plans are lettered to correspond, so that in 
following the explanation, either the entire plan Fig. 20, 
may be referred to, or the different sections, as pre- 
ferred. 

Referring to Fig. 20 or 21, the main shaft A is driven by 
a belt from a countershaft. 



92 

Twist gear B drives the top cone shaft, through gears 
C and D. 

On the outer end of top cone shaft the gear E drives 
the front roll through gear F. 

On the front roll is small pinion G, which drives crown 
gear H. 

Crown gear H is on a stud which carries the draft gear 
J on the other end. 

Draft gear J is put on stud in such a way that it may be 
readily removed and changed to suit variations in 
draft required. The stud is mounted on a movable 
bracket which may be adjusted to suit different sizes of 
draft gear. 

Draft gear J drives back roll gear K. The draft of the 
machine depends upon the relation between speed of 
front roll G and back roll K. This relation depends 
upon the size of gears G to K. The relation might be 
mfinitely varied by changing any or all of the gears in this 
train; but as the required variation is not very wide, in 
any particular case, the gears G, H and K are made so 
that the range of variation may be covered by changing 
the draft gear J.' 

The back roll communicates motion to middle roll by 
the small gears shown, through large broad intermediate 
gear shown in dotted lines. These gears are so propor- 
tioned that there is a slight draft from back to middle 
roll, as in the case of the drawing frame (58,) but most of 
the draft is between middle and front roll. 

87. Referring again to Fig. 20 or Fig. 21, the spindles 
are driven from main shaft from gear a, through interme- 
diate b to gear d on end of shafts which carry the skew 
bevels e, that finally drive spindle gears or toe gears f. 

There are two lines of spindles, one behind the other in 
these illustrations. Another gear behind d. and of same 
size, engages with d and drives another line, which also 
carries skew bevels to drive the back line of spindles. 
The gears e are made skew bevels, instead of plain bevels, 
?o that the end of spindle may pass on by the spindle 
shaft and rest in its bearino- below. 



94 

This is plainly seen in Fig. i8, which also shows the 
bobbin skew bevels, made so for the same reason. 

88. Referring to Fig. 20 or Fig. 22, the bobbins are 
driven through the train O, R, S, T, U, V, W, with the 
intervention of differential motion, whose action is more 
fully described in (116.) 

The gear Q is made fast to main shaft A. The gears 
P and R run loose on shaft. The gear R has a long hub, 
on which is made fast the bobbin driver S. 

If sun wheel P is held still, the gear Q turning with 
main shaft A will communicate motion to R, which will 
through the gears, S, T, U, V, W, drive the bobbins. If 
sun wheel P should be turned in either direction, it will 
alter the speed of bobbin, while shaft A continues to turn 
uniformly. This is arranged so for the purpose of slow- 
ing the number of revolutions of bobbin as the 
bobbin grows larger from winding on more roving. 
It is necessary to keep the surface speed of bobbin con- 
stant, as shown in (84.) 

The builder, Fig. 23, operates through pinion q' and 
rack Z to gradually shift the belt from large end of top 
cone, toward small end, as the bobbin fills, thus reducing 
speed of bobbin. 

89. Referring to Fig. 23, the mechanism of the buil- 
der may be studied. It accomplishes not only the 
traversing of the cone belt by proper degrees, but it 
causes the bobbin carriage to reverse its motion at top 
and bottom and to do it at the proper time to shorten 
the travel of this carriage at each stroke, thus producing 
the taper on bobbins, as seen in Fig. 18. 

90. The tendency of drag weight s', is to cause 
upright shaft and pinion q' to revolve. This would cause 
the shifting rack Z to move in the direction of the arrow 
toward the head. But this motion is prevented by the 
ratchet wheel j' and pawls m', n'. The ratchet and pawls 
form an "escapement" exactly like the pendulum escape- 
ment on a clock. The weight or spring in a clock can 
only cause movement of the wheels when pendulum 



o- 




Fig. 2.2. Bobbin Drive. 



96 

swings first to one side and then to tlie other, letting the 
wheel advance by half a notch at a swing. In the same 
manner the ratchet j' can only move when first one pawl 
and then the other is held back. The bevel o' is fastened 
to same shaft as ratchet, so that when ratchet is permitted 
to move, the bevel o' moves and allows bevel p' to move. 
Since bevel p' is fastened to upright shaft, the pinion q' 
moves with it, and feeds the shifting rack Z a small 
amount. 

91. The pawls m' and n' are connected together by a 
spring, so that their tendency is to engage with the 
ratchet unless so held back. In figure 23, the pawl m' is seen 
held back by detent k', while pawl n' is holding ratchet. 
As will be shown below, the detent k' will move at the 
proper time toward head of machine and knock pawl n' 
out, and allow m' to catch the next tooth in ratchet, 
while ratchet will revolve half a tooth. 

92. Detent k' is moved by the lower cradle g', as 
shown in Fig. 23. The cradle is rocked from one side to 
the other by one or the other of the weights h', whenever 
one or the other of the pigeon wings f are hfted out of 
their notches, by the action of the set screws d' in the 
upper cradle. 

As the lower cradle is rocked, the detent k' is moved 
to knock out one of the pawls m', n'. The lower end of 
k' also moves and shifts the reversing bevels m, m. These 
are connected with the train of gears which cause bobbin 
carriage to travel up or down according as one or the 
other of the reversing bevels is in action. This action 
may be readily followed in Fig. 23, where the train n, p, q, 
r, s, turns the lifting shaft s, on which are the lifting pin- 
ions t, engaging the lifting racks u, which are attached 
to and move the bobbin carriage up or down according to 
the direction in which shaft s is made to revolve. 

93. Attached to the carriage rail r', is a slotted bar a', 
in which is guided a pin attached to back end of taper 
rack b'. When carriage goes up or down, the back end 
of taper rack goes with it. The taper rack is so hung 




L^u^^^m^^»^TO:v^ 



98 

that it is free to move forward and back in the slot when 
actuated by taper pinion c', which engages in the rack. 
At the same time, this taper rack, when going up and 
down with the carriage, rocks the upper cradle which 
carries the set screws d' e', which, as shown in (92) alter- 
nately lift the pigeon wings f out of the notches in lower 
cradle g'. The upper cradle, in moving, alsO' lifts up one 
weight l.)y the chain, while the other weight rocks the 
lower cradle. 

94. Referring to the plan view of builder, Fig. 23, it 
will be seen that the ratchet is fastened to the same shaft 
as taper pinion c', and that when a tooth is released in 
ratchet, this taper pinion will revolve a small amount and 
draw in the taper rack, so that its back end with its pin 
in the slot will come nearer to the head of the machine. 
Therefore, when carriage goes up and down, set screws 
d', in upper cradle, will strike pigeon wings sooner and 
sooner, thus allowing weights to rock lower cradle 
sooner and sooner. As this lower cradle moves the 
reversing gears m, m, the reversals will occur sooner and 
sooner, thus making each successive layer of roving, 
wound on bobbin, shorter than the one before. This 
makes the taper as seen in Fig. 18. 

CALCULATIONS. 95- In starting up a new fly- 

frame, it is necessary to make cal- 
culations for the purpose of determining the gears to use 
to bring about the proper conditions for the particular 
hank roving to be made. These points are as follows: 

Draft. 

Twist, or turns per inch. 

Speed of Spindles. 

Speed of Front Roll. 

Speed of Bobbins. 

Lay, or number of rows of roving per inch, counted 
lengthwise bobbin. 



99 

Transverse Lay, or number of layers per inch counted 
crosswise, or from centre to circumference. 

Taper of Bobbins. 

Amount cone belt must move forward at each traverse 
of carriage. 

In all calculations concerning any machine or pro- 
cess, it is important to make two distinct divis- 
ions of the factors involved, namely: the known 
(sometimes called the "data,") and the unknown. 
The known factors should be further subdivided 
according to the way in which they have be- 
come known. So^me data are simple laws of Nature 
and need not be further considered or questioined, for 
example the law of gravitation. Some have been found 
out by experiment, and are reliable or not, according to 
the character of the Experimenter. They are recorded 
in tables and rules, for example: the front roll of a fly- 
frame should not exceed 165 revolutions per minute for a 
certain hank roving. Some data are simply assumed as a 
basis of some particular calculation, as, for example: 
assuming that a 20 inch pulley will be put on the line 
shaft, in order to calculate what size pulley is needed on 
a machine to give a certain speed. Some data are 
determined by actual observations and measurements on 
the machine or thing under consideration. 

96. In case of the known quantities for calculations 
on fly-frames, the draft and twist are given on the organ- 
ization sheet for the work in hand. 

The speed of spindles is usually designated by the 
maker of the machine. 

97. " llie speed of front roll is dependent upon the 
twist, as will be shown later; but it should not exceed the 
figures given in the tables in appendix for the various 
hanks roving. These figures were derived from experi- 
ence, and represent the speeds which will deliver the 

maximum amount of work. 

98. The speed of bobbins must be nicely calculated to 
-vA/ind on at all stages the exact amount of roving deliv- 
ered bv front roll. 



100 

99- f he lay of roving is ascertained from the tables in 
the appendix. This has been determined by experience. 
It is for slubbing approximately lo times the square root 
of the hank, and for other roving 13 times the square 
root of the hank. Thus 3 hank roving has a lay of 22 
rows per inch. The square root of 3 is 1.73. This mul- 
tiplied by 13 gives 22.5, which would answer about as 
well as 22. 

100. The transverse lay is more variable than any of the 
other conditions. It is dependent upon the state of the 
weather, the smoothness of the flyers, the smoothness of 
the stock itself, and also upon the number of times the 
roving is wrapped around the presser foot in threading up 
the flyer. Tlie more it is wrapped, the more tension or 
stretch is put upon the roving, and hence the tighter it is 
wound on the bobbin, and the more layers put on per 
inch. 

In starting up a new frame, before flyers have become 
burnished by use, it is usual to wrap roving twice 
around presser. After it is run several days, it is usually 
wrapped three times, and sometimes four times. With 
three wraps and other average conditions, the transverse 
lay is 3 times the (longitudinal) lay. This means that 
there are 3 times as many layers of roving per inch count- 
ing from centre of bobbin outward, as there are rows 
when counted lengthwise bobbin. Thus 3 hank rov- 
ing would have a (longitudinal) lay of 22 and a transverse 
lay of 66. 

loi. The taper of bobbins is a matter of judgment, 
but must be enough to keep bobbins from tangling when 
roughly handled around the mill. The usual amount of 
taper is produced when each successive layer of roving on 
the bobbin consists of one row of roving less than the 
preceding layer. Thus if there are 132 rows in the first 
layer on a bobbin, the next layer will be shorter than the 
preceding one, by one diameter of the roving or half 
diameter at each end, or 131 rows. This condition would 
cause the individual rows composing each layer to lie in the 
V between the rows composing the preceding layer. 



101 

102. The amount that cone belt must move forward 
at each traverse of carriage must be calculated so that 
the speed of bobbins (which is controlled by the position 
of this belt) is reduced just the right amount to compen- 
sate for the increase in size of bobbin caused by the wind- 
ing on of one layer of roving. 

103. For the sake of a defmite starting point in 
making calculations, take the following data for a roving 

frame. 

Hank roving to be made (From organization 

sheet.) 3-00 

Draft (from organization sheet) 5.56 

Twist per inch (from organization sheet) . .2.12 
Speed of driving shaft (counted on machine) 

: 458 

Lay (from table) 22 

Transverse Lay (3 times lay) 66 

Diameter Front Roll (measured on machine) i^ inch. 

Diameter Back Roll (measured on machine) i inch 

Large Diameter Cone (measured on machine) 6^ inches 
Small Diameter Cone (measured on machine) 3 niches 
Length of Cone (measured on machine) 30 inches 

Diameter Empty Bobbin (measured on 

machine) ^2 "^^^ 

Diameter Full Bobbin (measured on machine) 3^ inches 
Length of Bobbin (measured on machine) .... 7 inches 
Pitch of Belt-Shifting-Rack (measured on 

machine) 2-7 inch 

Pitch of Taper Rack (measured on machine) 2-7 inch. 

Pitch of Lifting Racks (measured on machine) 5-14 inch. 
Gears as numbered in Figs. 20 to 23 (counted 

on machines) 

Proceeding Math the above data, the calculations will 
be made for finding the change gears to produce the 
proper motions. 

Draft Gear. 104. From the various discussions 

heretofore given on drafts and constants, 

it may be seen that when the draft gear is inserted in the 



102 

formula, the result is the draft, and that when the draft is 
inserted in the formula, the result is the gear. We use one 
or the other of the above figures according as the draft gear 
or the draft is known. In the present case the draft is 
known (103) to be 5.56. We shall therefore insert it in 
the formula in the place where the draft gear would 
come, and the result of the formula is the draft gear 
required. 

Referring to Fig. 2T, and following the rule, consider- 
ing back roll the driver, the draft gear is found by the 
formula : 

i-| X 52 X 80 

I X 5.56 X 20 

This works out 42, and means that the draft gear neces- 
sary to produce a draft of 5.56 is 42. 



Contraction, 105. The foregoing figures give what 

is called "theoretical draft." But in 
practice the twist which is put in the roving shortens the 
length after it leaves front roll, so that the length wound 
on bobbin is less than length delivered by front roll. This 
difference is called "contraction." The amount of it 
depends mostly upon the amount of twist put in the rov- 
ing. It cannot with certainty be calculated. It must be 
determined for each particular case by the man in charge. 
It is part of his skill. The result of contraction is that 
roving delivered by a frame weighs more per yard than 
calculations show. Some of the waste made by the frame 
would tend tO' make the roving lighter, but the final 
result of both tendencies is that ordinary roving weighs 
from I to 4 per cent, heavier than it should by the calcu- 
lations. 

In order, therefore, to have the calculations come out 
right, the draft must be i to 4 per cent, greater than calcu- 
lations show. This corrected draft is called "actual 
draft." The draft gear to be used must have i to 4 per 



103 

cent fewer teeth than calculated. In the above case, the 
draft gear, instead of being 42 as figured, must be 41, or 
else the draft instead of being 5.56, as figured, would be 
about 5.40. 

Speed of Spindi.es. 106. Referring to Fig. 21, and 

noting from the data (103) that 
speed of driving shaft is 458, the speed of spindles is found 
from the formula: 

458 X 40 X 55 
37 X 22 
This works out 1237. 

Twist Gear. 107. The flyer and spindle revolving with 
one end of the roving, while front roll holds 
the other end, produces a twist. If front roll delivers i inch 
per minute and flyer turns i time per minute, there will be a 
twist of I per inch. If front roll delivers 10 inches while 
flyer runs 2 revolutions, the twist will be .2. If a twist of 
.2 per inch, is required, and spindle (and flyer) runs 2 rev- 
olutions per minute, the front roll must deliver 2^-.2:=io 
inches per minute. 

From the above it will be seen that if a certain twist is 
required, and we know the speed of spindles, we may 
produce that twist by making front roll deliver a certain 
num-ber of inches, which is found by dividing speed of 
spindles by twist. Applying this rule to the case in hand, 
we know from (103) that the twist should be 2.12 and we 
have found (106) that spindles run 1237. The amount of 
roving that must be delivered by front roll is therefore 
i237-:-2.i2=583.5 inches. Since diameter of front roll 
is i-|. its circumference is i^ x 3.1416=3.53 inches, and 
it must run 583.5-^3.53^165 revolutions per minute in 
order to impart a twist of 2.12 per inch. The gearing 
must be so arranged that front roll will make that speed. 

From Fig. 21, it will be seen that the speed of 
front roll is controlled by gear B, (marked "twist.") The 
problem now reduces itself to finding the number of 
teeth in gear B on shaft A, running 458 revolutions to 



104 

run front roll 165. This may be expressed as a formula 
in two ways. First \)y considering the driving shaft A 
as the driver, thus: 

458 X B X 44 

5 =165 

48 X 130 ^ 

or second, by considering the front roll as the driver, thus: 
165 X 130 X 48 



44 X B 



= 458- 



The latter formula presents exactly the same case as in 
(104) where the draft was known, and draft gear was 
required. There we inserted the known amount in the 
formula where the unknown gear would appear, and the 
result was the gear required. Proceeding in the same 
manner here, we insert the known amount 458 in the 
place where the gear B would appear, and we have 
165 X 130 X 48 

44 X 458 

This works oiit 51, and means that if the gear B has 51 
teeth, the front roll will make 165 revolutions. This may 
be verified by putting 51 in either of the two formulas in 
place of B. For example the first: 
458 X 51 X 44 
48 x 130 

This works out 164.7, which is nearer 165 than either a 50 
or a 52 gear would come, and so we choose 51. 

108. To summarize the work in finding twist gear: 

1. Find speed of spindles. 

2. Divide speed of spindles by twist required, to 
obtain inches of roving delivered per minute. 

3. Divide inches of roving by circumference of front 
roll to determine number revolutions of front roll per 
minute. 

4. Find twist gear necessary to run front roll the 
proper speed. 










NO 
O 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiyijliniiiiiiiiiiiiyiijM|iiiiiiff^ m 




106 

109- All of the operations performed may be grouped 
together in one formula, thus: 

4Q X 55 X 1 30 X 48 

37 X 22 X 44 X I-J X 3.I416 X 2.12 

This works out 51, as before. 

The above formula may be stated in general terms, thus: 
wSp. driving gear x Sp. skew bevel x fr. roll gear x Mid. 
cone gear divided by 

Sp. shaft gear x toe bevel x end cone gear x circ. front 
roll X twist = twist gear. 

Or, inserting twist gear in place of twist in above formula 
the result is twist per inch. 

Speed of Bobbins, ho. Referring to Fig. 22, we 

see that bobbin is driven from 
main shaft 1)y gear Q through the intervention of the 
differential train P, R, S, and that its speed is varied by 
varying the motion of the sun wheel P, which is itself 
driven from bottom cone through the train L, M, N, O, 
and its variations produced by changed positions of the 
cone belt. 

Tii. The action of the differential train will now be 
considered in itself, in order to enable us to see in what 
way it influences the speed of bobbin. If the sun wheel 
P were held still, and gear O revolved in the direction of 
the arrow, which we will call "forward," it is evident that 
gear R would revolve loosely on the shaft in the opposite 
direction, which we will call "backward." The gear R, 
having the same number of teeth as Q, will revolve at 
same speed as O. Now suppose O to be held still and P 
revolved backward. In this case, the intermediate 
bevel P' being pivoted in sun wheel P will be carried 
around by its centre, and the side next to Q will be held 
still, while the side next to roll R will cover twice the dis- 
tance made by its centre.* Therefore, if the sun wheel 

* This will be made plain by reference to the lower part of Fig. 22 
which is a top view of gears Q and P^. If the part of P^ which is in 
contact with O be held still, and the centre moved a distance of i 
inch, as shown, the other side will move from R to R', a distance of 
2 inches. 



107 

P revolve i time, it will carry the centre of P' a distance 
equal to i revolution of Q, and the outer edge of P' a 
distance equal to 2 revolutions of Q. Hence, when P 
makes i revolution, P' will make 2 revolutions/'- 

Since R has the same number of teeth as P' and Q, 
when P' makes 2 revolutions backward, R will make 2 
revolutions backward. The result of the whole train is 
that when P is revolved backward i turn while Q stands 
still, R is revolved backward 2 turns. Now if Q should 
go forward 458 turns while P goes backward i turn, R 
will go backwards 458 tiu-ns on account of O, and 2 
turns on account of P, making 460 turns in all. 

112. The above examples lead to the general rule for 
the differential: THE SPEED OF BOBBIN DRIV- 
ING GEAR IS EOUAL TO SPEED OF MAIN 
SHAFT PLUS TWICE THE SPEED OF SUN 
WHEEL. The same rule in another form would be: 
THE SPEED OF SUN WHEEL MUST BE HALF 
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SPEED OF BOB- 
BIN DRIVING GEAR AND MAIN SHAFT.^ * 

113. We found (107) that front roll delivers 583.5 
inches of roving per minute. The speed of bobbin must 
be so adjusted that it leads the flyer just enough to wind 
up this amount. 

When bobbin is empty, its diameter (103) is i^ inches, 
and its circumference i^ x 3.1416=4.71 inches, there- 
fore when empty it must lead the flyer 583.5-^-4.71=124 
revolutions. We found (106) that spindles (and Hyer) 
run 1237. hence bobbins must run when empty, or as it is 
called, "the beginning of the set," 1237+124=1361 revo- 
lutions. 



* The usual way of stating this condition is, that P^ makes i revo- 
lution on account of its contact with the teeth of O, and i revolution 
on account of the revokition of P, thus making 2 revolutions to i of 
P'' as stated above. 

** It must be remembered that the whole of this discussion 
relates to bobbin-lead machines. In flyer-lead machines, the sun 
wheel P revolves forward, and an entirely different set of conditions 
arise, the discussion of which, while interesting as a study of mechan- 
ism, would only serve to confuse matters without being of any practi- 
cal value in the present circumstances. 



108 

114- The bottom cone is driven from top cone, while 
top cone is driven from main shaft through train B, C, D. 
Since speed of main shaft is 458, speed of top cone is 
458x51 __^g5^^ ^jij since large end of cones is 6^ inches and 
small end 3 inches, the fastest speed that bottom cone can 
make is •^1^*^^^1054.3, and the sloAvest speed is 

486.6x jj^__224..6. 

6J/2 ^ 

This is a difference of 829.7 revolutions between hav- 
ing the belt on large end of top cone, and having it on 
small end of top cone. Since the cone is 30 inches long, 
the traversing of cone belt 30 inches makes a difference in 
speed of bottom cone of 829.7 o'^' ^ difference per inch of 
belt shift, 829.7-^-30=27.66 revolutions. It is usual to 
so adjust the machine that cone belt will not stand at the 
extreme end of cone when the set begins.' It may start 
at say 4 inches from end. In this case the speed of bot- 
tom cone begins less than 1054.3 by 4 x 27.66=110.6, 
which would be 943.7. 

115. We found (113) that at the beginning of the set, 
the bobbin should run 1361 revolutions, while the bottom 
cone runs 943.7; and the problem is to find the train of 
gears to insert between these two places to bring about 
this condition. We shall for the present consider all of 
the gears fixed, as marked in Fig. 22, except cone gear L, 
and reduce the problem to finding this gear. 

Differential. 116. Owing to the nature of the 

differential, the problem must be 
broken into two parts, the first being to find the speed of 
the sun wheel P. Considering the bobbin as the driver 
and making 1361 revolutions, we find the speed of the 
bobbin driver vS from the formula: I3(iix32x37 

5dx40 

This works out 503.5. According to the rule in (112) 
the speed of sun wheel must be half the difference 
between speed of bobbin driver and speed of main shaft. 
This difference is 503.5 — 458=45.5, and half the differ- 
ence is 22.75. Hence sun wheel P must run 22.75. 



\a- 




Fig. 22. Bobbin Drive. 



110 

117. The other part of the problem now is to find 
what gear is necessary at L when P makes 22.75 revolu- 
tions and bottom cone 943.7. Proceeding exactly as in 
(107,) where twist gear was calculated, we may assume 
that bottom cone is the driver of the train and write the 
formula 943. 7xlxi5 __22.75; or we may assume 

(58x125 

that sun wheel is the driver, and write the formula: 
22.7s X I2S X 68 

This latter formula presents exactly the case where, as 
in (104) and (107,) we inserted the known amount in the 
formula in the place where the unknown gear would ap- 
pear. Preceding thus, we have the formula 
22.75 X 125 X 68 

15 X 9437 
This works out 13.6, and we may use a 14 gear 
and compensate for the slight difference by starting the 
cone belt farther from large end of top cone. 

118. The result may be verified by putting the 14 in 
either of the formulas in place of L. Take the second 

formula: 

22.75 X 125 X 68 

15 X 14 
This works out 920.8, and the coue belt may be started 
far enough from large end of top cone to make it run 
920.8 instead of 943.7."^' 

Continuing the verification, we have the sun wheel 
running 22.75 revolutions. According to (112) the bob- 
bin driving gear runs at a speed equal to main shaft plus 
twice spefed of sun wheel. This would be 458+45-5=^ 
503.5. Following the train from S to W, we have the 
speed of bobbin: s^^wxss This works out 

i .i7xr22 

1360.8, which is within .2 of a revolution of the speed 

* We found (114) that with belt at extreme end, the bottom cone 
would run 1054.3, and that it reduced its speed 27.66 revolutions for 
every inch the belt was traversed. We now want 920.8 revolutions, 
which is 133.5 revolutions less than the maximum. _ This would 
require belt to be moved from the end 133. 5-=-27. 66=4.8 inches. 



Ill 

required as shown in (113,) and proves the correctness of 
the work. 

119. Having- determined the speed of bobbin at 
beginning of set, and fixed upon the gears and position of 
cone belt to produce that speed, it is now necessary to 
determine the speed when the l^obbin has grown to its 
full diameter of 3^ inches. And having determined this 
speed, it remains to find the position of the belt on the 
cones to produce this speed with the same gears in use 
as at first. 

Following the same course as in finding the speeds for 
empty bobbins, we know from (107) that front roll 
delivers 583.5 inches per minute. If full bobbin is 3J- 
inches in diameter, it is 3I x 3.i4i6:=ii inches in cir- 
*cumference, and it must lead the flyer 583. 5-^-1 1=53 
revolutions in order to wind up that amount. It must 
therefore run 1237+53=1290 revolutions. Considering 
the bobbin the driver, the speed of gear S may be compu- 
ted by the formula: 

1290 X 22 X 37 
55 X 40 ^ 
This works out 477.3. According to the rule in (112) the 
speed of sun wheel must be half the difference between 
speed of bobbin driver and speed of main shaft. This 
difference is 477.3-458=19.3, and half the difference is 
9.6. Now the problem is to find the speed of cone that 
will run sun wheel 9.6 revolutions. Considering sun 
wheel the driver, the cone speed may be computed b\ the 
formula : 

9.6 X 125 X 68 
15 X 14 
This works out 388.6. When the bobbin was empty at 
beginning of set, we found (118) the corresponding cone 
speed to be 920.8. At end oi set it is 388.6, which is 
920.8-388.6=:532.2 revolutions less than at beginning. 

We found (114) that speed of cone was reduced 27.66 
revolutions per inch traverse of cone belt, hence at end 



' 112 

of set the belt must be a distance from the startmg pomt 
of 532.2-f-27.66=ig.2 inches. 

Ratchet Wheei.. 120. We have determined (118) 

that cone belt must start 4.8 
inches from large end of top cone and traverse 19.2 
inches during the filling of the bobbin up to 3^ inches 
diameter. We must now provide for the uniform distri- 
bution of this motion between these extremes. 

The rack Z, which controls the belt traverse, has teeth 
with 2-7 pitch, that is, the teeth are 2-7 inch from centre 
to centre. When belt rack moves 19.8 inches, the 
number of teeth moved is i9.8-T-y=69.3. The pinion 
q' on upright shaft has 40 teeth and gears into this rack. 
While rack is moving forward 69.3 teeth, this wheel must 
turn 69.3-f-40=i.732 revolutions. From Fig. 23, it will 
be seen that upright shaft carries a bevel p' with 31 teeth 
gearing into bevel o' with 18 teeth. The last bevel o' is 
on the little shaft carrying the ratchet that regulates the 
movement of the belt rack. While upright shaft turns 
1.732 times, this little shaft will turn hl^^ ^2.98 times. 

We have seen (92) how the movements of the bobbin 
carriage operate to let off half a tooth of the ratchet for 
each traverse up or down, which means for each l^yer of 
roving. If we now determine how many layers there are 
on the bobbin, this gives us twice the number of teeth 
that must be let off by the ratchet during a set. Since we 
have just found the number of revolutions of ratchet shaft 
during a set, we may then find the number of teeth that 
must be in the ratchet in order to deliver the given num- 
ber of teeth in 2.98 revolutions. 

From data (103) there are to be 66 layers of roving per 
inch, counting from centre outward. We know empty 
bobbin is i^ inches in diameter, and full bobbin 3I inches 
diameter. The roving is thus 2 inches thick on both sides 
of bobbin, or i inch thick on each side, and contains 66 lay- 
ers. Hence the bobbin carriage makes 66 traverses up and 
down, or 33 up and 33 down, and it will knock off half a 



IIB 

tooth of ratchet 66 times, and ratchet wih pass 33 full 
teeth. Since it does this during 2.98 revolutions, it must 
have 33-^2.98^11 teeth. 

121. With II teeth in the ratchet wheel, the belt rack 
will move forward 19.8 inches, and 66 layers of roving 
Avill be wound on bobbin. It must be borne in mind 
that there is a wide variation in the ratchet required, 
depending upon the state of the weather, the smoothness 
of the flyer, the character of stock worked, and the num- 
ber of tmies that roving is wrapped around presser foot. 
All of these things affect the tension with which roving 
is drawn on the bobbin. This affects the hardness of the 
bobbin and the number of layers that may be put on in a 
given diameter. This is more variable than any other 
change about the machine, and should be allowed for by 
keeping on hand a number of ratchet wheels, to change 
when circumstances require it. The matter is easily 
adjusted by the attendant. If the bobbin winds up the 
roving properly at the beginning of set, but becomes too 
tight, with a tendency to pull apart toward the last of the 
set, it indicates that speed of bottom cone is not being 
reduced fast enough and that belt does not traverse far 
enough at each layer, and that teeth in ratchet are too 
near together. Hence a ratchet with fewer teeth is 
required. Having fewer teeth in the same diameter, 
spaces them farther apart and gives more belt traverse 
per tooth. A ratchet with more teeth is required when the 
conditions above are reversed. 

IvAY Gear. 122. From data (103) the lay of 3 hank 
roving is 22 rows (or turns on bobbin) per 
inch. The first layer is 7 inches long and contains 7 x 
22=154 rows. The circumference of empty bobbin is 
i|- X 3.1416=4.71 inches, hence the 154 rows contain 
154 X 471=725.3 inches. We found (107) that front 
roll delivers 583.5 inches per minute, hence the number 
of times that this first layer of 725.3 inches could be 
delivered per minute would be 583. 5-^725. 3=.8o, (that 



114 

is, it could lay on a little more than | of a layer per minute.) 
This means that bobbin carriage makes .80 traverses per 
minute up or clown, and the problem is to find the neces- 
sary gears to make the carriage move at that speed. 

123. Referring to Fig. 23, it will be seen that the racks 
u, attached to bobbin carriage are traversed up and down 
by pinions t, which are on the lifting shaft driven from 
bottom cone through the train L, M, N, g, h, 1, m, n, p, 
q, r, s. We know the speed of up and down motion of 
bobbin carriage. We must find what speed the pinion t 
must have to produce the proper carriage motion. 
Then the train of gears must be determined that will give 
that speed. 

124. We found (122) that the carriage makes a 
traverse of 7 inches in .80 minutes. From data (103) teeth 
in carriage rack are 5-14 inches from centre to centre. 
Therefore in 7 inches there are 7-^ j^5_ =ig,6 teeth. 
These 19.6 teeth must pass in .80 minute, which is 19.6 
-r-.8o^24.5 teeth per minute. From data (103) pinions 
t on lifting shaft have 18 teeth. Therefore when 24.5 
teeth pass, these pinions must revolve 24. 5-^ 18=-- 1.36 
times. This means that lifting shaft revolves 1.36 times 
per minute, and the problem is to find the gears necessary 
to give it that speed. 

125. As in the other cases, we shall assume that all 
the gears in the train are fixed, except the change gear, 
which is in this case the "lay gear" q. 

Proceeding as in similar cases above, we might com- 
pute the speed of lifting gear s by considering bottom 
cone the driver. We know (118) bottom cone speed is 
920.8. Inserting the letter in place of unknown gear, 
the formula would be 

920.8 X 14 X 44 X 15 X 13 X q ^^ 
68 X 56 X 70 X 80 X 73 

Or we might compute the speed of bottom conebyconsid- 



116 

ering- lifting gear s the driver, and inserting the letter in 
place of unknown gear. The formula would be: 
1.^6 X 7^ X 80 X 70 X s6 X 68 

-^ — '^ =Q20. 8 

q X 13 X 15 X 44 X 14 
In the last formula we have the unknown gear in the 
denominator, which is the condition under which we 
found that the formula could be rewritten, putting the 
known quantity in place of the unknown, and having the 
result give the unknown quantity. Thus we may re-write 
the formula: 

1.36 X 73 X 80 X 70 X 56 X 68 
920.8 X13X15X44X14 ^ 

This works out 19. i. 

126. We shall therefore select 19 as the proper lay 
gear, and proceed to verify the work as in the other cases. 
Take the first formula and insert the value 19 in place of 
q, and we have: 

920.8 X 14X44X 15 X 13X 19 

68 X 56 X 70 X 80 X 73 
This works out 1.35 revolutions of lifting shaft instead of 
1.36, which would have been the case if we could have used 
a gear with 19. i teeth. 

In the calculations for lay gear, the speed of bottom 
cone was assumed to be what it is at the beginning of the 
set; and the number of rows to be put on was what would 
he oil the first layer at beginning of set. At the end of 
set, the speed of bottom cone is reduced, which also 
reduces the speed of carriage, and would, if same number 
of rows were to be put on, cause the rows to lie closer 
together. That is, larger number of rows per minute. 
But the niunber of rows per minute is less, because the 
nuni1)er of revolutions of bobbin is less. As both carriage 
and bobbin are controlled in speed by bottom cone, 
one reduction is in proportion to the other, and hence 
there is the same lay at end of set as at beginning. This 
'might be verified if desired, by going over all the calcula- 
tions for lay gear, and substituting the proper speeds at 
end of the set in place of the speeds at beginning of set. 



117 

TapkR Gear. 127. We found (120) that when the 

bobbin grew to its full size, 3^ inches 
in diameter, the roving was in 66 layers on the bobbin. 
The taper should be about equar to half the diameter of 
the roving at each end of bobbin. This makes each row 
shorter than the preceding one by i diameter of roving, 
or sav by i row. As there are 22 rows per inch length- 
wise, each layer will be 1-22 inch shorter than the pre- 
ceding. In 66 layers, this would be 66-=-22=3 inches. 
Thus the last layer on a full bobbin is 3 inches shorter 
than the first layer. The first layer was 7 inches long so 
the last layer will be 4 inches long. 

128. It was shown (93) that the taper rack is 
attached to the bobbin carriage by a pin at its end sliding 
in a slot, and that this taper rack, in its motions up and 
down with the carriage, rocks the upper cradle of the 
builder containing set screws, which release the pigeon 
wings and cause reversing bevels to move, and change 
direction of carriage. In order to make- the taper, the 
cradle must rock enough sooner at every traverse of 
carriage to make the total traverse 4 inches at end of set, 
instead of 7 inches, as at beginning of set. 

Taper Rack, Fig. 24. — Lettering. 

A. Lower Cradle. 

B. Outer End — Beginning of Set — Top of Traverse. 

C. Outer End — Beginning of Set — Bottom of Traverse. 

D. Outer End — End of Set — Bottom of Traverse. 

E. Outer End- — End of Set — Top of Traverse. 

F. G. Pigeon Wings. 
H. Upper Cradle. 

K, K. Set Screws in Upper Cradle. 

L. Frame in which Pigeon Wings are pivoted. 

The taper rack is shown in Fig. 24 in four positions: 
top of - traverse, beginning of set; top of traverse, end of 
set; bottom of traverse, beginning of set; bottom of 
traverse, end of set. To avoid confusion, only one posi- 
tion of top cradle is shown. 



118 

To produce the required taper the extreme end of rack 
must move 7 inches at beginning of set and 4 inches at 
end of set. 

In order for the reversal of carriage motion to take 
place, the set screw K must raise pigeon wing G entirely 
out of notch in lower cradle. Therefore the pigeon wing 
G must be in the position shown when at the top of each 
carriage traverse whether at beginning or end of set. 
This means that set screw K must be in same position at 
top of each traverse, and hence the angle of top cradle 
must be the same. Hence at the end of set and top of 
traverse, the end of rack B will be in position E. 

129. We want to- find the size pinion necessary to 
draw the rack into position E during the building of the 
set. To do this, we must find the distance from B to E. 
Suppose, at beginning of set, the pin B measures 24 
inches from centre of taper pinion in builder. We 
know that the points B and C are 7 inches apart, and that 
the points D and E are 4 inches apart. We may lay out 
the diagram to scale, as in Fig. 24, and measure the 
distance B E, or we may arrive at it by rule of three; 
because the distance H B must be to H E, as 7 to 4, 
thus: 7:4: : 24: 13.7. Hence H E is 13.7 and the travel 
of point B is 24 — 13.7=10.3 inches. 

The rack contains teeth 2-7 inches apart, hence the 
number of teeth represented by a travel of 10.3 inches 
will be 10.3-^=36. 

We found (120) that the little shaft in builder which 
carries taper pinion revolves 2.98 times during the build- 
ing of the set. This pinion must turn an amount equal 
to 36 teeth during 2.98 revolutions, hence the number of 
teeth it must contain is 36-^-2.98=^12. 

If taper pinion has more than 12 teeth it will in 2.98 
revolutions draw the rack in more than 10.3 inches and 
thus make distance D E shorter than 4 inches. This 
means that outer layer of roving is less than 4 inches long, 
and that consequently there is more taper. Hence the 
more teeth in taper pinion, the greater the taper. 



120 

Constant. 130. We found in all the instances 

where change gears have been cal- 
culated that if the draft, for instance, is left out of the 
formula, the result is the draft constant. In all the 
instances where draft gear appeared in denominator of 
the formula, the constant was a "dividend." That is, 
if constant is divided by draft, the result is draft gear 
required. It follows from this, that if draft and draft 
gear be multiplied together, the result is the draft con- 
stant. This holds good in all cases where the unknown 
gear appears in denominator of formula. To save 
trouble, we may avail ourselves of this fact in determin- 
ing the various constants for the roving frame under 
discussion. 

Production. 131. By the same method as with 

other machines, the production is 
found by multiplying the circumference of front roll in 
inches b}^ its revolutions per minute. This gives the 
number of inches delivered per minute. This multiplied 
by the number of minutes in an hour and the number of 
hours in a working day, and divided by the number of 
inches in a yard will give the yards delivered per day. 
This divided by 840 will give the number of hanks per 
day. This divided by the "hank roving" (or number of 
hanks per pound of stock delivered) will give the result 
reciuired, namely: the numl^er of pounds produced per 
day per spindle. This is theoretical production if frame 
should run every minute of the day. But it is impossible 
for this to occur, l^iecause v/hen the bobbins are filled, the 
frame must be stopped to "dof¥" (or remove full bob- 
bins and put on empty ones.) Besides this, whenever 
the roving breaks, (or, technically, there is an "end 
down,") the frame must be stopped to piece up. Ten 
per cent is usually allowed for losses of time from all 
causes. This is a fair average allowance, but in some 
cases is hardly sufficient. 

132. Expressed as a formula, the theoretical produc- 



#-' 



121 

tio'ii per spindle per clay for the frame discussed would be 
i| X 3.1416 X 165 X 60 X II 
36 X 840 X 3 
This works out 4.24 pounds per spindle when running every 
minute for 11 hours. Deduct 10 per cent, and the usual 
rating- would be 3.82: but 3.60 would be a safer estimate 
for ordinary operations. 

In figuring production of fly frames in general, the 
allowance for lost time must not be rigidly gauged by any 
fixed per cent. It will be readily seen that, in very 
coarse slubbing, the bobbins will fill quicker, and hence 
need doffing oftener than in fine roving. About as 
much actual time is lost in one case as in the other, but 
the per cent, is greater. Something like 15 minutes per 
set is right to allow for doft'ing and other stops. A slub- 
ber making .5 hank slubbing would run a set in about an 
hour, so that stoppage in that case would be 25 per cent., 
while 6 hank fine roving would run a set in about 5 
hours, and a stoppage of 15 minutes per set would figure 
5 per cent. 

Some difiierence may be made in prodtiction by the 
number of spindles under the care of one operative. If a 
mill is so designed that there is a liberal allowance for 
stoppage, fewer operatives are necessary than for the 
case where each machine must be pushed to the utmost 
for every minute of the day in order to keep up with the 
subsequent machines. 

The maximum speed of front roll that would be allow- 
able under certain conditions must always be determined 
by expermient at the time. Geuverally speaking, the 
finer the stock delivered, the slower the speed must be. 
If a machine runs faster than its maximum, the ends will 
break down more frequently, and more production will 
be lost by stoppage than will be gained by the greater 
delivery of front roll at the fast speed. In the Appendix 
will be found tables giving what are considered proper 
speeds under average conditions for various hanks roving. 



122 

Summary of 133. Including the data in (103,) 

Calculations. we now have complete information 

for gearing up the roving frame as follows: 

Speed of Driving Shaft , 458 

Speed of Spindles , 1237 

Diameter Front Roll i;^t inches 

Speed Front Roll 165 revolutions 583.5 inches 

Diameter Back Roll i inch 

Draft 5.56 

Draft Gear 42 

Draft Constant (5.56 x 42) 233.5 

Twdst 2.12 

Twist Gear 51 

Twist Constant (2.12 x 51) 108. i 

Bobbin Diameter, empty i^ inches, full . . . . 3^ inches 
Bobbin Circumference, empty 4.71 inches, full, iiinches 

Bobbin Speed, empty, 1361, full 1290 

Bobbin Length, first layer 7 inches, last layer 4 inches 

Layers on Bobbin 66 

Cone diameters, 6 inches and 3^ inches 

Cone Length 30 inches 

Cone Belt starts from end of cone 4.8 inches 

Cone Belt travels 19.2 inches 

Speed Bottom Cone, at start 920.8, at finish 388.6 
Reduction of Cone Speed per inch of length 27.66 rev. 

Cone Gear 14 

Ratchet II 

Lay 22 

Lay Gear 19 

Lay Constant (22 x 19) 418 

Taper Gear 12 

Production: Pounds per spindle per 11 hours, 
(10 per cent allowance) 3.82 

134. Concerning calculations on fiy frames in general, 
it may be said that very few overseers, or even superin- 
tendents in the Southern mills, have that easy familiarity 
with the subject that gives them the courage and incli- 



123 



nation to go through the calculations and see that every 
adjustment is exactly right. When machines are ordered 
the shop is generally given full information as to the 
character of work to be done, and they are supposed to 
send proper gears with the machines. Men are sent out 
from the shop to set the machines up and adjust them 
to the work required. Usually only small changes are 
necessary to fit the limited changes required in oue mill. 
Overseers usually make changes by "rule of thumb." If 
one gear does not m.ake the machine go right, another 
and another is tried until it seems right. 

It need scarcely be pointed out that this method is 
not the proper one. While the result may seem to be 
all that is necessary, much bad work developed in the 
after processes may be traced back to imperfect adjust- 
ment on the roving machinery. This is particularly true 
in regard to the matter of tension. 

As has been shown, the tension of roving between 
front roll and tlyer depends upon the cone gear in use, 
and upon the position of cone belt. When the cone gear 
has been determined, the position of cone belt at 
beginning of set is adjusted to give the proper tension, 
and the stop adjusted so that every time a set is finished 
and cone belt is run back, it will always go back to the 
same point, and it will start with the same tension. If 
the ratchet gear is properly selected, it will feed the cone 
belt along in such a way that the tension started with, 
will remain uniform, as the bobbin grows in size. If the 
ratchet has too many teeth, the belt will not be moved 
along cone fast enough, and tension will grow too tight. 
The principal trouble comes right at this point. As the 
tension becomes tighter, there will be a stretch in roving, 
thus developing a false draft between front roll and bob- 
bin. Hence the stock will run lighter. The roving is 
strong eno'Ugh to hold together under a considerable 
amount of draft, in some cases 20 per cent. 

When roving- finally breaks down from too much 
stretch, the operative "lets off" a tooth or two of the 



124 

ratchet by hand, and it runs on again with continually 
tightening- tension until it is ready to break, and then the 
ratchet is again let off by hand. It is easy to see that 
this sort of work results in a great variation in weight of 
roving, and it should not be permitted. A ratchet with 
fewer teeth should be applied at once. 

On the other hand, if a ratchet with too few teeth is in 
use, the cone lielt will be carried forward too fast and 
speed of bobbin will suffer too great a reduction; and 
the tension, however correct at beginning of set, will 
become too loose as the bobbin grows. The bobbin will 
not wind up the roving delivered, and roving will soon 
break down. The operative then stops machine and 
winds back the ratchet by hand a tooth or too by guess. 
He will be more likely to wind it back too much than 
too little; because if too much, it may, by straining the 
roving, keep running, while if too little, it will soon run 
slack, and break down again. The consequence is, that 
uneven stretching, or false draft, is again produced. 
Hence with a ratchet containing either too many or too 
few teeth, there will certainly be uneven roving, due tO' a 
constantly ^-arying stretch between' front rolls and bob- 
bin. 

Much ingenuity has 1:)een expended on roving machin- 
ery to make it automatic and regular in all its move- 
ments. If any ]:)articular machine requires constant 
manipulation to make it turn out regular work, either 
the machine or the operative needs immediate attention. 

Too much stress cannot be laid on the matter of keep- 
ing the tension right. There is always a temptation to 
let the machine run as long as the ends will stay up, but 
this is no criterion ; for it is quite .possible for the ends 
to stay up. while there is great unevenness of tension. 

SHORT METHODS. 135. In the actual operation of 

a mill, it is not always necessary 
to make complete calculations as for a new machine. If a 
machine is running and producing satisfactory results on 
a certain hank roving, and it is required to change the 



125 

gears to produce another hank, it is sometimes done by 
the use of constants and so^metimes by the rule of three. 
The use of constants has been fully discussed in connec- 
tion with all of the preceding machinery. 

Draft. In making new draft calculation, it has been 

shown (105) that a certain allowance is neces- 
sary for contraction. But in the case of a frame already 
running, a calculation may be made by the rule of three, 
which will include all allowances and give the correct 
result at once. For example, a frame is making 3 hank 
roving and the draft gear in use is 58, what gear is neces- 
sary to produce 4.80 hank. 

The required hank is to present hank, as present gear 
is to required gear, thus: 4.80: 3.00: : 58:? This works 
out 36.2, and means that a 36 gear is as near as possible, 
with all allowances made. 

Twist. As there are noi allowances necessary in the 

case of twist, the calculation by constants is 
the easiest. But if the constant is not known, or if for any 
other reason it is desired tO' work it out by rule of three, 
the required twist is tOi the present twist as the present 
gear is to required gear. For example, if the frame is 
now making roving with a twist of 4.10 per inch, and a 
twist gear 60: and a roving is required with a twist of 2.00, 
it is stated thus: 2.00: 4.10: : 60:? This works out 123, 
and means that a twist gear with 123 teeth will produce a 
twist of 2.00 per inch. 

This question has usually been made much harder to 
understand than it should be, on account of mixing up 
square roots in the problem. When the twist per inch is 
stated in both cases, as above, squares and square roots 
have nothing to do' with it. If a frame is now running 
with a 70 twist gear making 4 hank roving, and it is 
desired to change it to say 3 hank roving, the twists corre- 
sponding to- these hanks vary according to the square root 
of the hank in each case; but it is better to find what these 
twists are from the table before taking up the question of 



126 

the gears; and thus the question of square root is elimina- 
ted from the simple rule of three. But if desired, it can be 
all worked together, thus: square root of 4: square root of 
3: : 70;? ;or 2: 1.73: :7o:? I'his works out 121 which is 
the twist gear required. 

Lay. Exactly the same methods may be pursued in 

working out a change of lay gear as in the case of cwist 
gear. 

GENERAL DATA. 136. Fly frames are generally 3 
feet wide, and vary in length accor- 
ding to number of spindles and distance apart, spindles 
are placed, (known as "Gauge or space of spindles.") 
The width allowed for a slubber must be more than the 
bare width of machine, because three lines of cans must 
stand behind it. Only one can of sliver is fed to one 
spindle, but, as there are about 8 spindles to each 36 
inches in length of frame, and as cans are usually 12 
inches in diameter, the cans will have to stand three 
deep to supply the sliver. Hence the net width allowed 
for each slubber including cans must be not less than 6 
feet. 

The length of any frame may be closely approxi- 
mated by multiplying half the number of spindles by the 
gauge, and adding to the result 3 feet for gearing, driv- 
ing, pulley, etc. The reason for using half the number of 
spindles is, that spindles are in two rows. If there were 
only one row, the whole number of spindles would be 
multiplied by the gauge. Suppose a frame contains 60 
spindles, with gauge of 6 inches. The length of frame 
would be 30 X 6-:--i2=i5 feet+3 feet=^i8 fej^<5fal. 

The height of a frame is to top of roller beam about 
3 feet for fine roving, and 3^ feet for intermediate and 
fclubbing. Top of creel is 6^ to 7 feet high. 

The weights of the average size frames in use are 
approximately as follows: For 60 spindle slubber 100 
pounds per spindle; For 102 spindle intermediate, 75 
pounds per spindle'; For 144 spindle roving 50 pounds per 



127 

spindle. The weight per spindle decreases sHghtly as 
number of spindles increases. The weight per spindle 
increases as the gauge increases. 

137. The bottom rolls are supported in stands made 
fast to roller beam. They stand from 18 inches to 22 
inches apart according to gauge of frame. This distance 
from centre to centre is called by the English the 
"staff" of the frame. 

There is always a definite number of spindles between 
stands. Slubbers usually have 4, intermediates 6, and 
fine roving 8. If the slubber is 8 inch gauge, 4 spindles 
(2 in front and 2 in back row) will occupy 16 inches, and 
the stands are 16 inches, from centre to centre, and the 
gauge of the machine is sometimes expressed as "4 spin- 
dles in 16 inches," instead of "8 inch gauge." This is 
really the better way, as it gives information on two 
points at once. If a roving frame is 4^ inch gauge, 8 
spindles (4 in front and 4 in back row) will occupy 18 
inches, and the gauge may be expressed as "8 spindles in 
18 inches." 

The rolls are made in sections to fit the stands. The 
ends are made with squares and sockets to be driven 
together, forming a continuous roll of the required 
length. The rolls are made with "bosses" (or enlarge- 
ments) w^hich deliver the roving to spindles. Sometimes 
the boss is made long enough to pass two separate ends 
of roving and deliver them to two spindles. In this case, 
it is called "double boss" or "Long boss." Sometimes 
there is one boss for each spindle; this is "single boss" or 
"short boss." On general principles it would seem 
better to have a boss for each delivery or spindle, but 
when the spindles stand very close together, that is, have 
a small gauge or space, the stirrups, by which weights 
hold top rolls down, would stand so close together in 
the case of single boss rolls, that they would interfere 
with cleaning off the roller beam. There is one set of 
stirrups and w^eights for every two bosses, whether single 
or double. In the case of single boss rolls, with say 8 



128 I 

spindles in the space of i8 inches, there would be 8 
bosses and 4 sets of stirrups. 

This would throw the stirrups 4^ inches centre to 
centre. In the case of double boss rolls, there would be 
4 bosses and 2 sets of stirrups in 18 inches, which would 
throw them 9 inches apart. With slubbers and interme- 
diates, spindles stand farther apart than with fine roving 
so that, with say 4 spindles in 16 inches, there would only 
be 2 sets of stirrups in the space of 16 inches, even with 
single boss rolls. Hence slubbers and intermediates are 
usually made with single boss rolls, and fine roving with 
dou1)le boss. The roll weights are made heavier for 
double boss than for single boss, because as shown above, 
there are fewer weights used. 

138. The roll weights are sometimes hung ''direct,'" 
which is one set of weights for each roll, front, middle 
and back; and sometimes hung double, which is a direct 
weight on front roll, and one weight on a saddle over 
both middle and Ijack rolls; and sometimes "lever weigh- 
ted," in which all or part of the weights hang by means 
of levers which increase the effect and enable lighter 
weights to be used. The direct weights seem simpler 
and better, though some superintendents, for various 
reasons, prefer double weighting, and some lever weight- 
ing. The frame works equally well in any case, and the 
only choice is in convenience of handling. Most English 
frames are direct weighted, and most American frames 
double weighted. 

For use with frames about like those discussed, say 
slul)ber with 4 spindles in 18 inches, single boss; interme- 
diate with 6 spindles in 19^ inches, single boss; fine rov- 
ing with 8 spindles in 20 inches, double boss, the weights 
hanging direct would be about as follows: 

Slubber. Intermediate. Fine Roving. 
Weight on Front Roll, 18 lbs 14 18 

Weight on Middle Roll, 14 10 14 

Weight on Back Roll, 10 8 12 

139. Fly frames are supplied with leather covered top 



139 

rolls, similar to those for drawing frames. They are 
made solid or "shell" (or Loose "boss") and, like the 
drawing, are generally arranged with front roll shell, and 
back rolls solid. The frames are equipped with a roving 
traverse, which slowly moves the roving from end to end 
of rolls, to prevent wearing grooves in top rolls, whicb 
would occur if roving were always fed through in the 
same place. 

140. For average size frames the power required is 2 
horse power per frame; or about 30 slubber spindles, or 
50 intermediate spindles, or 70 fine roving spindles per 
horse power. 

141. Spindle and bobbin are guided in bobbin car- 
riage by the "collar." There are long collars and short 
collars. lyong collars have about supplanted the short. 
These collars are also- sometimes called "bolsters." 

142. The "hand" of a frame is determined as 
described with the other machines, by standing at front 
or deliver}^ roll and noting whether driving pulley is at 
right or left hand. When standing at front roll, the 
driving shaft of all fly frames runs from you. The spin- 
dles and bobbins always run right handed, or "clock- 
wise," when looking down on them. Therefore, when 
looking up at delivery roll, the roving is turning left 
handed. But the roving itself, when viewed from either 
end, appears with right hand twist, that is, the twist 
may be followed around like the threads on a right hand 
screw. j 

143. Three or four change gears for each change 
place, are furnished with each machine. The price of fly 
frames varies greatly with the specifications as to gauge, 
carriage traverse, number of spindles per frame, etc. The 
price increases with the increase of gauge and traverse, 
and decreases with the increase of spindles per frame. 
The price per spindle of frames such as have been dis- 
cussed is about as follows: Slubber, 60 spindles, $13.00; 
Intermediate, 102 spindles, $9.00; Fine Roving, 144 
spindles, $6.00. 



130 

144- The calculations and the engravings relate 
principally to the standard patterns of English fly frames, 
which have been the basis of the designs in this country. 
There have been many variations in detail, but the gen- 
eral principles herein discussed may be readily applied to 
any frame. One important variation consists in the 
differential motion. The standard pattern is known as 
the "Holdsworth" motion. In this motion, some of the 
gears must revolve loosely on the driving shaft in an 
opposite direction to the shaft. ' This is objectionable on 
account of greater friction. One or two other motions 
were designed in England for the purpose of running in 
the same direction as the shaft. The most prominent of 
these is the "Tweedales" motion. Several good ones 
have also been designed in this country. They all have 
different formulas, which would be furnished and 
explained by the makers, whenever applied to their 
machines. They all have for their purpose the gradual 
slowing down the speed of bobbins as the set advances. 
In using other differentials than that illustrated and 
described in the text, the calculations proceed as usual, 
merely substituting in place of the formula for the 
Holdsworth motion, the formula for whatever new 
motion is used. 

145. Frames are made in varying lengths (or number 
of spindles) to suit conditions of space, etc., but about 30 
feet is considered the most convenient. When frames 
have small guage, (that is: spindles near together,) a 
larger number of spindles will be in a frame 30 feet long, 
have small gauge, (that is: spindles near together,) a 
with an arbitrary number of spindles. The number must 
be a multiple of the number of spindles between roll- 
stands. If a slubber has 4 spindles between stands 
(expressed in specification as "4 spindles in 18 inches, "' or 
20 inches as the case may be) then a slubber may be 
ordered with 40, 44, 48, 52, etc., spindles, varying by 4 
fDindles. If an intermediate has 6 spindles between 
biands, the frame ma}'- be ordered with 90, 96, 102, etc.. 



i:31 

spindles, varying by 6. If a roving frame has 8 spindles 
between stands, the frame may be ordered with 120, 128, 
136, etc, spindles, varying by 8. It is possible to make 
a frame otherwise, but it adds to the cost. 

SPECIFICATIONS. 146. Following is a sample blank 

to be filled out in ordering fly 
frames. This blank ma}^ be used for slubbers, intermedi- 
cite or fine roving, making separate sheet for each. 

Slubber. Intermediate, or Fine Roving 

Number of Frames 

NiUTiber of Right Hand 

Number of Left Hand 

Spindles in each Frame 

Gauge of Spindles . . inches (or . . spds in , . inches) 
Diameter of Spindle (standard Slubber and Int. f , Roving 

f ) 

Hong or bhort Collars , 

Carriage Traverse (or lift) 

Diameter Empty Bobbin 

Diameter Full Bobbin 

Bobbins in '.he Creel: length , diameter 

Bobbins in Creel, Single or Double 

Single or Double Boss Rolls 

Weights: Flow hung 

Weights: On front Roll lbs.. Middle Roll lbs., 

Back Roll lbs. 

Diameter Bottom Rolls: Front. . ; Middle,. . ; Back,. .. 

Top Rolls: Shell, Front Fine, or all lines 

Driving Pulleys Diameter, Face, 

Driven from above or below 

Speed FVriving Pulleys 

Speed Spindles 

Length of Frame over all 

Hank of Roving in Creel 

Hank of Roving to be made 

Draft 

Twist per inch 



132 



Maker . . 
Purchaser 
Price . . . . 

Terms . '. . 
Remarks 



CHAPTER VIII. 

IRing Spinning* 

147. In the processes thus far treated, the object to 
be attained was cleaning, straightening, evening and 
drawing out. Each process made the stock hghter, and 
only put in enough twist to hold it together until it could 
reach the next machine, which in drawing, would render 
practically inappreciable what little twist there was. 

The final process in making single ply yarn is spinning, 
which consists in still further drav/ing out and imparting 
the final twist to the product. There are two ways in 
which this may be done: "mule spinning" and "ring spin- 
ning." 

Mule spinning is the oldest system, and originated in 
England. It is still in almost universal use in that coun- 
try. It is also largely used in New England, and spar- 
ingly in the Southern States. 

148. Ring spinning is in more general use in the 
United States, and especially in the South. It will there- 
fore be treated more in detail than mule spinning. 

In roving machinery, the processes of drawing and 
winding on bobbin are simple, and the mechanism and 
calculations complicated. In ring spinning, the processes 
are more complex than the mechanism. 

SPINNING FRAME. — FIG. 25.— LKTTERING. 



A. 


Bobbin in Creel. 




R. 


Saddle. 


B. 


Traversing Guide 


Eye. 


S. 


Stirrup. 


C. 


Bottom Fluted Rolls. 


T. 


Lever. 


D. 


To]) Rolls. 




U. 


Lever Screw. 


E. 


Thread Guide. 




V. 


Weight. 


F. 


Thread Board. 




vV. 


Cap Bar. 


G. 


Ring. 




X. 


Creel Post. 


H. 


Ring Rail. 




Y. 


Creel Board. 


J- 


Spindle Rail. 




Z. 


Skewer. 


K. 


Spindle. 




a. 


Ballooning Yarn, 



134 

L. Traveler. 

M. Bobbin. 

N. Spindle Base. 

P. Tin Cylinder. 

Q. Spindle Band. 

Spinning Frame — The roving, in some cases double. 
Process. and in some cases single, passes 

through guide eye B. between bot- 
tom and top rolls. 

Rolls produce drawing effect, in the same way as on 
drawing frames and fly frames. 

Top rolls are held in place by cap bars, the same as in 
roving machinery. 

Weights are hung with saddles (shown more plainly on 
the right hand side of Fig. 25) and stirrups and levers. 

Yarn delivered by front roll passes through thread 
guide E and through traveler L to bobbin M. 

Spindle is driven right handed, or clock wise by a round 
band made of twisted yarn. The band runs from tin 
cylinder around the whorl of spindle. 

Bobbin is fast on the spindle and revolves with it. As 
bobbin revolves, it draws yarn through traveler and 
causes traveler to also go around the ring. 

Revolution of bobbin and spindle produces twist. 

Traveler does not go around as fast as bobbin, hence 
yarn is wound on bobbin same way as by bobbin lead in 
fly frame. Traveler acts as a flyer. 

Ring is fastened to ring rail H which is traversed up 
and down by the lifting rod. Traveler goes up and down 
with ring and thus guides the yarn in layers on bobbin. 

Ring rail may be made to traverse in one of two differ- 
ent ways, producing a "warp wind," or a "filling wind." 
In the warp wind, the bobbin is built exactly like the rov- 
ing bobbin, that is, with each layer of yarn a trifle shorter 
than the preceding, as at A, Fig. 26. 

In the filling wind, the bobbin is built on an entirely 
different principle, as shown at B, Fig. 26. The mechan- 
ism of builder for filling is so arranged that there is a 




Fig. 25. Spinning Frame Section. 



136 

traverse first from base of bobbin a short distance up the 
bobbin. Then each successive traverse starts a trifle 
higher, and retaining the same length of traverse, causes 
the bobbin to be filled in the manner shown at B, Fig. 26. 
The base of wooden bobbin itself is made with a taper as 
shown, not as a perfect cone, but in small steps, the better 
to keep the yarn from tangling when 1)eing unwound. 

The slanting lines represent successive layers of yarn on 
bobbin. The length of lines are seen to be the same, but 
each successive layer starts a little higher up and ends a 
little higher up, thus preserving the same angle of the lay- 
ers. This peculiar shape is found to be the best adapted 
to the unwinding of the bobbin in the shuttle of loom. 

The main barrel of bobbin is made with ridges, so that 
when yarn is pulled off, it will come off one layer at a 
time, and not tangle. 

149. When bobbins have run full, the frame is stopped 
and "doffed," one bobbin at a time being removed from 
the spindle without breaking the yarn. The empty bob- 
bin is turned a few times around the slack yarn between 
traveler and full bobbin. Empty bobbin is then put in 
place on the spindle, and the yarn is broken, to liberate 
the full bobbin. When frame starts, the yarn being 
already attached to new bobbin, begins to wind immedi- 
ately. 

150. Another method of doffing sometimes practiced 
when the spindles used have no cup, is for the operator to 
press the ring traverse down with his foot, just before stop- 
ping frame, and cause yarn to be wound a few turns on the 
bare spindle below bobbin. The full bobbin is removed and 
yarn broken off and empty bobbin put oh spindle. When 
frame starts up, the ring rail guides yarn properly on new 
bobbin, and spinning proceeds as before. This process of 
doffing would seem to be the simplest and best. But an 
objection to it is that the yarn will, after a time, accumu- 
late on the spindle and prevent the bobbin from properly 
seating. 



138 

This yarn might easily be removed with each dolTing, 
but in practice it is not regularly done, and causes much 
trouble. 

151. The gearing of a spinning frame consists princi- 
pally of one simple train. The spinner is not called upon 
to make any calculations, except for draft, twist and pro- 
duction. 

SPINNING FRAME GEARING. — FIG. 27. — LETTERING. 

A. Tin Cylinder, or driving shaft. 

B. Cylinder Gear. 

C. Jack Gear. 

D. Twist Gear. 

E. Intermediate. 

F. Large Gear on Front Roll. 

G. Small Gear on Front Roll. 
H. Crown Gear. 

J. Draft Gear. 

K. Back Roll Gear Driven 

L. Back Roll Gear Driver. 

M. Intermediate. 

N. Middle Roll Gear. 

P. Sprocket Wheel to drive Builder. 

O. O.' Builder Cam and Shaft. 

R. R.' Builder Lever. 

r. r.' Builder Pivot. 

S. S.' Star Wheel. 

T. T.' Pawl. 

U. U.' Chain to Lifting Rod. 

u. u.' Point of Attachment for Chain. 

V. Traverse Weight. 

W. Lifting Rod or (English) "Poker." 

X. *Ring Rail. 

Y' Y.' Driving Pulley on either end (but not on both.) 

O.' U.' Builder, as made for Filling Wind. 

152. Some superintendents prefer to have driving pul- 
leys on opposite end of tin cylinder from the gearing. 
This preference is due to the fact that in this case the driv- 



140 

ing pulleys and belts are completely out of the way when 
making changes or repairs on gearing. Others prefer 
pulleys on same end of cylinder as gearing, for the reason 
that, Jn this case, the power to drive the gearing is near 
the pulleys, and does not strain the cylinder as it would 
in the other case, when it must be transmitted its entire 
length. 

The tin cylinder acts as a shaft. The small shafts 
shown at each end are only short pieces inserted for the 
purpose of carrying pulleys and gears. Experiment has 
shown, however, that the power consumed by the gearing 
is only about 1 1 per cent, of the entire power required, so 
that the strain would not seem to be excessive in either 
case. Most makers will arrange the gearing on either 
end to suit the ideas of the users. 

WARP BUILDER. 153. The upper part of Fig. 27 

shows the builder arranged for 
warp wind. 

The point of attachment u on lever R. for chain U. is 
movable, being a nut on a screw. The screw carries star 
wheel S., so that if S is turned, the point u is moved in or 
out. The weight V. keeps lever R pressed against cam 
Q. When cam allows lever to go up, the pawl T., wliich 
is stationary, acts on star wheel, and turns it a small 
amount in the direction to feed the point u nearer to 
point r. This gives a smaller movement to the point u 
and hence reduces the traverse of lifting rod and ring rail. 
This winds a shorter layer of yarn on each traverse, and 
makes a warp bobbin like A., Fig. 2 6. 

FILLING 154. The lower portion of Fig. 27 

BUILDER. shows how a builder is made for filling 

wind. The cam O.' has a different 
shape, and is arranged to make more traverses per revo- 
lution of builder shaft than the warp wind. It is also 
shaped so that the traverse down will be more rapid than 
the traverse up. This is for the purpose of crossing the 



141 

thread to some extent, to prevent bobbins tangling when 
they are unwound over the end, in the loom shuttle. 

But the most important difference is in the result of the 
turning- of the star wheel S/ by pawl T.' The star wheel 
instead of being carried on a screw, as in the case of warp 
builder, is attached directly to a spool, around which the 
chain may wind. As lever R.' moves up and down, actu- 
ated by cam, the point of attachment u' of chain does not 
move in toward the point r' and lessen its leverage. The 
leverage remains the same, but the spool unwinds a lit- 
tle of the chain every time star wheel strikes pawl. This ^ 
keeps the amount of ring rail traverse the same, but starts 
it higher every time, thus producing the filling bobbin as 
shown at B, Fig. 26. 

155. A crank handle is provided, with which star wheel 
may be wound back to the starting point at the end of every 
"doff" (or "set," as it would be called m the case of roving 
frames.) If wheel is not run back to begin the new set, 
the new bobbins will begin to wind where the old ones 
left off, that is: in the case of warp bobbin, with a short 
traverse; and in the case of filling bobbin, with a traverse 
at top part of bobbin instead of at the bottom. 

It is necessary for the filling bobbin to begin building at 
the bottom part, because there the wooden bobbin is 
made with the taper which gives shape to the whole bob- 
bin of yarn. 

COMBINATION 156. Some spinning frames are so 

BUILDER. constructed that the bobbin may be 

built warp wind or filling wind. 
Such frames are called "combination frames." The differ- 
ence consists in arranging the builder so it may be quickly 
changed from one wind to the other. Two cams are put 
on cam shaft. When frame is being run for warp, the 
cam for filling wind is slipped out of the way on the shaft, 
and vice versa. 

In changing from one wind to the other on a combina- 
tion frame, the draft and twist gears are generally 
changed, and also the size of rings and the speed of cylin- 



142 

der. This is necessary on account of the difference 
between the character of warp and fihing yarn, warp being 
harder twisted than lihing. 

The amount of twist in yarn, hke that in roving 
depends virtuahy upon the relative speed of front roll and 
spindle. This relative speed is controlled by the twist 
gear. The larger the twist gear, the faster the front roll,, 
and the less the twist. 

FRONT ROLL SPEED. 157. The speed of a spinning 

frame is limited by the speed 
of its front roll. This, like the front roll speed of roving- 
machinery has been determined by experience. In the 
appendix will be found tables, giving among other data, 
the proper speed of front roll for the different numbers of 
yarn. These speeds are not fixed and invariable ; but they 
serve as a guide, and probably represent on the average 
the best speed for maximum output of yarn. A faster 
speed would necessarily deliver more yarn, but there 
would be so much more difBculty in keeping the ends up, 
that the time lost in piecing up would more than counter- 
balance the time gained in faster speed. Aside from the 
mere fact of lost production by piecing up, there is a cer- 
tain liability to bad piecing, which detracts from the per- 
fection of yarn. 

The amount of twist in yarn, limits to some extent the 
speed of front roll. The more the twist, other things 
being equal, the better the ends will stay up, and faster 
the front roll may run. 

Front roll may increase in speed with coarseness of 
yarn. 

These facts have been taken into consideration in the 
tables. The twist given opposite each number is based on 
the old English standards. 

STANDARD TWIST. 158. Almost in every instance 

in England, where ring frames 
are in use, they are for spinning warp (or "twist," as they 
call it) while mules are in use for filling (or "weft.") The 



143 

standard twists for warp spun on ring frames are there- 
fore all right, and are generally adhered to, while the 
twist for filling being based on mule spinning, are not 
correct for ring frames. They are softer or slacker twis- 
ted than can be easily spun on ring frames at the speed 
given in those tables. 

No original American tables have been published for ring 
spinning. They are all based on the old English stand- 
ard. The tables which have been published in /Vmerica, 
are mostly fottnd in the catalogues of builders of machin- 
ery. Every one knows, that in the case of filling, the 
standard of twist and speed cannot be profitably attained 
in practice. But no machinery builder wants to publish 
a table with a greater filling twist or lower speed, for the 
reason that the public might conceive such a falling off 
from the standard to be necessary on account of inferior 
machinery. 

159. Standard warp twist is found by multiplying the 
square root of the number of the yarn by 4.75. Standard 
mule filling twist is found by multiplying the square root 
of the number by 3.25. These are considered to be the 
ideal factors. Filling frames are usually speeded to- give 
this twist at the speed in the old tables. The conse- 
quence in actual practice is, that the spinner, finding it 
difficult and unprofitable to run that way, increases the 
twist to about 3.60 times the square root. It would 
make better yarn, and remedy the difficulty just as well 
(though reducing productions,) to leave the twist as first 
designed and reduce the speed of the frame. But the 
twist may be altered by the change of a gear, which is 
easily and cheaply obtained, while a reduction of speed 
would necessitate new driving pulleys. Besides this, 
there is always such a drive for high production that qual- 
ity of yarn is apt to be sacrificed for production. 

NEW TABLES. 160. The tables pubhshed in the 

appendix have been carefully com- 
piled from experience, and may be relied upon, as giving 



144 

the best conditions under which ring yarn can be spun. 
Frames speeded in accordance with these tables will run 
and give maximum production for the twists named. The 
standard factors for twist have been retained, and the 
speed adjusted to suit. 

A soft filling yarn is desirable as it gives a soft "feel" to 
the cloth. Soft warp would also be desirable, but for the 
reason that less twist in any yarn means less strength. 
There is considerably more strain on warp yarn in the 
processes of preparation for the loom, and in the loom 
itself, than there is on filling. Hence, aside from any rea- 
sons involved in the quaHty of the cloth made, there is a 
need of greater strength in warp than in filling. In any 
case, from slubbing to spinning, it is desirable to put in 
the least twist compatible with the requirements of sub- 
sequent processes. 

i6i. When speed of front roll has been fixed at the 
correct amount for the average number of yarn to be spun 
the twist gear is computed tO' give proper twist for that 
number of yarn. Then the speed of driving shaft or tin 
cyHnder may be determined. Small changes of counts 
and consequent changes of twist will cause speed of front 
roll to vary from the standard, but it will not usually give 
trouble, because weights of traveler may be adjusted to 
suit speed. 

Formerly the speed of ring spinning was Hmitedby speed 
of spindle, and not by front roll. The mechanical perfec- 
tion of the present day spindle is such that it may run over 
10,000 revolutions per minute. But in order not to get too 
much twist in yarn that is coarser than number 40. the 
spindle speed must be reduced proportionately (even 
below 5.000 revolutions in the case of spinning number 8 
filling.) See the table in appendix for speeds correspond- 
ing to different numbers. 

When the maximum spindle speed was considered to be 
4000, the front roll, in order to produce the proper twist, 
could only run about half as fast as the present standard. 
This is slower than is demanded by the necessity of keep- 
ing ends from breaking down. 



145 

SPINDLES. 162. The development of the spmdle is 
shown m Fig. 28, in which A is an old 
form, B the latest type, and C an enlarged section show- 
ing interior parts of spindle shown at B. There are sev- 
eral varieties of spindles based on the latest type. The 
most radical improvement over the old form consists in 
making the bearings self contained, sO' that when fastened 
in place, no work is required to produce alignment of 
parts. The older forms had two bearings, fastened to two 
independent rails. If these two parts were not perfectly 
adjusted, the spindles could not properly run. The mod- 
ern spindle is attached by its base to the spindle rail at one 
point only, and is always ready to run independently of 
external conditions. Another important feature is the 
flexibility of the bearings. 

The spindle accurately fits thebolster, but bolster is about 

5-^-0 inch smaller than the base which holds it. 

The spindle, with its load of bobbin and yarn, having a 

certain amount of freedom, will, when running, adjust 

itself to a proper centre of revolution, much in the same 

way as a boy's top will do when it is spun. 

The whorl, where pressure of band pull comes, overhangs 
in such a way that the strain is directly resisted by the 
bearing. 

The little step in botto^m of baseis adjustable. By screw- 
ing it up or down the taper end of spindle may be made to 
fit looser or tighter in the bolster. 

An oil reservoir in the base keeps spindle constantly 
lubricated. In starting new spindles, it is necessary to 
supply fresh oil every few days, until the fibrous packing 
has become saturated. After this, fresh oil is required 
only about once a month. The oil tube in most general 
use for conveying oil to- spindle reservoir is shown in Fig. 
28, and also on the right in Fig. 25. This tube has a 
hinged cover, carrying a slight projection which acts on a 
spindle guard, to hold spindle in place when doffing the 
bobbins. To pull the spindle out, it is only necessary to 



146 

raise this cover as shown in Fig. 28, when projection 
moves in out of the way. 

Another form of oil tube and spindle guard is shown at 
the left in Fig. 25. A wire bent at right angles is screwed 
into spindle base. It may be screwed around to hold 
spindle in place or to release it. 

163. The spindle bands are made on a small machine 
in the mill, generally of yarn from tangled bobbins. They 
consist of 40 to 60 strands of yarn twisted into a two-ply 
cord about 3-16 inch diameter. Bands are sometimes also 
made of roving. Bands vary in size, but the most approv- 
ed size for average spinning is such that 120 bands weigh 
a pound. 

Bands are put around tin cylinder and whorl of spindle, 
drawn tight and tied. One end of band is in the form of 
a loop, where it has been doubled over itself to make it 
two-ply. This makes it convenient to tie. This style of 
band is sometimes called "loop-band." 

The tying on of these bands is an important matter. If 
they are too tight, the power consumed by the frame is 
excessive. Experiment has shown that the degree of 
tightness in spinning bands has more influence on con- 
sumption of power than any other one element. Usually 
bands are tied on by boys, who pull them as tight as they can. 
If the bands are tied too slack, the spindle will not run at 
its rated speed, and will produce slack twisted yarn. 

164. Bobbins are carried by the spindle by virtue of 
the tight fit over the "blade" of spindle. The spindle is 
sometimes also provided with "a cup" into which the bot- 
tom of bobbin fits. There are "warp cups" and "filling 
cups," made to fit the shapes of warp or filling bobbins. 
Often, however, both warp and filling bobbins are made 
to fit warp cups. This arrangement enables all spindles 
to be alike, and gives less trouble in keeping them sepa- 
rate, and makes it easier to change from warp to filling. 

RINGS. 165. Within the past ten years, spinning 
rings have been brought to a high state of per- 
fection as to smoothness, roundness and hardness. Fig. 



Blade 




Fig. 28. Spindles. 



148 

29 shows a double ring, that is, one that may be used on 
one side until it is worn too much, and then turned over 
and used on the other side. Practically, however, the 
other side is rarely used. One side of a ring will wear 5 to 
10 years. In that time, the underside of the ring will have 
become so gummed with oil and dirt, that it cannot be 
used without a most thorough cleaning. 

It is essential that the ring be absolutely clean and 
bright, otherwise the traveler will not be able to run freely, 
and bad work will result. A rapidly revolving brush, like a 
jewelers poHshing wheel, is the best instrument for clean- 
ing ring-s preparatory to turning them over. Rings are 
also made ''single,'' and, as they are much cheaper than 
the double ones, many people prefer to order single rings, 
especially in refitting old frames. New frames are gener- 
ally equipped with double rings by the maker. 

166. Rings are held in place on the ring rail by "ring- 
holders," which are of two kinds: the cast iron. A, Fig. 29, 
and the plate B, Fig. 29. It is essential for good work, 
that rings be accurately adjusted, to be concentric with 
spindle. It is not possible to fix rings or ring-holders to 
ring rails with sufficient accuracy, hence the ring is made 
adjustable by its ring-holders. It may thus be accurately 
adjusted to the spindle. The cast iron ring-holder is 
adjusted by three screws: two in front and one in rear of 
ring rail, so that by loosening any one and tightening the 
other two, the ring may be moved a small amount in the 
direction of the loosened screw. 

The cast iron holder is made with a split, so that it may 
be slightly sprung open to receive ring. 

It then springs back and holds ring tight. The wire 
shown at A, Fig. 29, is called the "traveler clearer." It 
is sprung around the ring and has the end turned up as 
shown, so that it will just miss the traveler as it goes 
around ring. If traveler should accumulate any fly or 
broken threads, the clearer would knock it off. 

167. Plate holders are held down to ring rail by sim- 
ple screws in slots from the top. These screws may be 
loosened, and the holder and ring moved to any desired 



crq 

5" 

p. 



> 



DD 





150 

position within the limits of the slots. The rings are held 
in plate holder by being forced between the upturned 
flanges, as shown at B, Fig. 29. The traveler clearer on plate 
holder consists of a portion of the plate turned up as 
shown. Spindle rail is bored for spindle base somewhat 
larger than the base, so that by loosening the nut on base, 
spindle and base may be adjusted through a small range. 
The principle adjustment between spindle and ring i? 
made by mo\ang the the ring. 

RING SETTING. 168. Rings and spindles are set while 
spindles are running. A large bobbin 
is made and turned true on spindle about 1-32 inches smal- 
ler than ring. This bobbin is put on a spindle, the 
mechanism which traverses ring rail up and down is dis- 
connected, ring rail is raised to its highest position, and 
ring or spindle adjusted so bobbins will run in center of 
ring. Ring rail is then moved to bottom of traverse, and 
spindle and ring again adjusted. Sometimes the adjust- 
ment is made with ring rail at middle of traverse only. 
This is the easiest and most common way; but the first 
method is the best, and is known as "double setting." If 
rings and spindles are not perfectly concentric at all 
points, there will be unequal pulls on traveler, which will 
result in uneven yarn. 

Makers of spinning frames send men out with new 
machines, who adjust rings and spindles, as well as other 
parts, and start them up in perfect order; but these details 
must be examined from time to time, and not allowed to 
become deranged. 

SEPARATORS. 169. Warp frames are generally 

equipped with separators. These are 
blades, sometimes made from sheet metal, and sometimes 
cast. Formerly where travrse of warp frames did not 
exceed 5 inches, cast separator blades served the purpose. 
But with the introduction of longer traverse, wider blades 
were required than could be cast without too much weight; 
hence stamped blades have become almost universal. 



151 

Separators are attached to- light rods, running length- 
wise frame, so placed that one blade stands in the middle 
of each space, between spindles, and above the ring rail. 
These rods are attached to lifting rods similar to those for 
traversing ring rail, but with a smaller traverse. The sep- 
arator rises and falls with the ring rail, through a shorter 
distance. The separator is for the purpose of keeping the 
yarn from adjacent spindles from becoming entangled 
with one another. The yarn passing through thread 
guide and traveler, being rapidly twirled around spindle, 
has a centrifugal tendency, and forms, as shown at a, Fig. 
25, what is called a "balloon." 

In the case of a warp frame, where traverse is so much 
longer than on filling frame, when ring rail is at bottom of 
traverse, there is a longer stretch of yarn between thread 
guide and traveler; and hence there is a tendency to bal- 
loon. The separator keeps ballooning yarn on one spin- 
dle from interfering with another. On filling frames, sep- 
arators are rarely necessary. If the frames were so 
constructed that spindles stood far enough from centre 
to centre, separators would not be necessary; but in order 
to economize, frames are generally made with spindles so 
close together as to need separators, especially on warp 
*^rames. 

170. The thrashing of yarn against separators necessa- 
nly works some injury to the yarn. It would undoubt- 
edly be better for the product if frames were made with 
sufficient space between spindles ("gauge") to entirely 
dispense with separators. It is thought by some to be a 
paying investment to give up floor space for this purpose. 
An average ring frame, for spinning No. 20 warp yarn 
would have 208 spindles with 2f gauge, if rings, and 6 
inch traverse; and would require separators. The frames 
would be about 27 ft. long. In order to dispense with 
separators, the gauge must be about 3^!, which would 
make the frame about 32 feet long. There are several 
varieties of separators on the market, all for accomplish- 
ing the same purpose, but dififering in details of applica- 
tion and operation. As a make shift, some frames are not 



152 

equipped with regular separators, but have been fitted up 
in the mill with a wire running full length of frame, just 
behind bobbins. The yarn strikes this wire, which partly 
checks the ballooning tendency and often does good work. 

TRAVELERS. 171. The selection of a proper weight 

traveler bears close relation to balloon- 
ing. The action of ring traveler is much like that of fiyer 
on roving frames. The roving flyer is driven at a constant 
speed by spindle, while bobbin is driven by a positive 
mechanism at a faster speed, in order to wind up roving. 
In the spinning frame, the spindle and bobbin revolve at a 
constant speed together. The yarn, passing through 
traveler on the way to the bobbin, is dragged around with 
the bobbin, but does not go quite so fast. This sagging 
back is equivalent to a bobbin lead, and allows yarn to 
wind on bobbin. At the same time, the going around of 
traveler causes twist to be put into the yarn. The drag 
of bobbin on traveler tends to revolve it as fast as the bob- 
bin itself, but the friction of traveler against ring, and of 
yarn in the traveler, and of yarn through the air, are all 
features tending to retard it. It is always possible to 
obtain the winding effect, no matter what the weight of 
traveler, so long as the yarn will hold together. If the 
traveler be very light, it will be willingly led, so to speak, 
and as there will not be much strain on the yarn in leading 
to traveler, it will balloon more. If a traveler be very 
heavy, it will be stubborn to lead, and the yarn will be 
much stretched in leading it. Carried to excess in this 
direction, the yarn will finally break. Hence the limit for 
lig-htness of traveler is the limit to which ballooning can be 
allowed; and the limit for heaviness is the limit to 
which stretch in yarn may be allowed. Since it 
is desirable to stretch yarn as little as possible, the 
ideal condition is to work the lightest traveler that will not 
damage yarn by beating too hard against separator. 

When double roving is being used, it is important to 
have the traveler heavy enough to break down the yarn in 
case one end of roving fails. When one of the two ends of 



153 

roving breaks or runs out, the resulting yarn, (called "sin- 
gle,") spun from the single roving, is only half the strength 
of the normal yarn; and, if the traveler is of proper weight, 
it will break down this "single," and thus prevent it being 
wound on the bobbin with the other yarn. 

172. There has been no fixed rule discovered for deter- 
mining the size traveler which is proper for a certain num- 
ber of yarn. It has heretofore been determined entirely 
by experiment under the particular conditions in question. 
It varies with size of yarn, size of ring, length of traverse, 
speed of spindles, twist in yarn, whether warp or filling 
wind, whether single or double roving, and whether there 
are separators or not, also with atmosphere, and with 
quality of raw material. But, in order to convey an 
approximate idea of the size traveler to use under average 
conditions for certain numbers of yarn, a traveler ta;:»le is 
given in the appendix. 

Travelers are numbered according to an arbitrary 
standard. The weights of different numbers of travelers 
are given in the table. 

Some brands of travelers have square points and some 
have round points; some have flatter curves than others; 
some are thicker in proportion to width than others. 
Superintendents differ in opinion as to whether one or 
another kind is better. They also differ in regard to what 
is the proper weight under the same conditions. The 
whole subject seems to lack scientific definiteness, and has 
not yet been sufficiently mastered to warrant the publi- 
cation of any hard and fast rule that will cover all condi- 
tions. The only plan at present is to experiment in each 
case within the broad principles laid down, and select the 
particular kind and weight of traveler which gives the 
best average results under conditions 101 the case in hand. 

SIZE OF RING. 173. The best size of ring adapted to 

certain yarns, is also a matter of 
opinion and judgment; but a table is given in the appendix 
showing a system of good average sizes. On account of sav- 
ing time in doffing, it would seem theoretically best to 



154 

spin bobbins of very large size and long traverse. This 
would mean large rings; but experience has shown that 
there is a well defined maximum size of ring for each num- 
ber of yarn. With large rings the pull of traveler on the 
yarn varies greatly between empty bol^bins and full bob- 
bins. Referring to Fig. 30, it will be seen that the pull 
of yarn from bobbin through traveler, when bobbin is 
empty, meets a greater resistance than when bobbin is 
full. In the first instance the pull is more nearly a direct 
strain on the ring, while in the latter the pull is more in 
the direction of revolution of traveler; so that traveler, 
instead of being strained against ring, is mostly impelled 
in the direction of revolution. But when using smaller 
rings, the difference in the angle of pull is very much less, 
and hence there is less unevenness in the stretch of yarn, 
and also in the twist. There is a limit to the smallness of 
rings, on account of making small bobbins and entailing 
much loss of time from frequent doffing. There is a limit 
to largeness of rings on account of unequal strains and 
twists in yarns, even to the extent of breaking the yarn, 
and making it impossible to spin. The maximum limit 
varies with kind of stock, and the amount of twist impar- 
ted. Thus it is possible to spin yarn with standard 
warp twist on a ring that would not spin yarn of same 
count with filling twist. 

174. It so happens that a large ring is not necessary or 
desirable in spinning filling, for the reason that the filling 
bobbin when spun, is ready without further manipulation 
to go to the shuttle for weaving. The size of bobbin 
which a shuttle will receive is always a smaller limit than 
the ring. That is, it is always possible to spin good filling 
of any number in a ring as large as the largest bobbin 
which a shuttle (designed for weaving that number of 
yarn) will receive. For the average sheetings woven in 
the South (from 3 to 5 yds. per pound) the shuttles are 
made to carry i^ inch bobbins, so that filling rings are very 
generally made i^ to if which is a good size for the 
counts spun, say 20 to 40. 





B 



Fig. 30. Pull of Traveler. 



156 

The final determination of size of ring which is proper 
under any given conditions, is a compromise between small 
size with small production and even yarn on the one side; 
and large ring, large production and more or less uneven 
yarn on the other. 

The length of traverse for filling wind is always small, 
from i^ to 2 inches, and the range has no important influ- 
ence on character of yarn spun. But for warp wind, the 
determination of the proper amount for a given set of con- 
ditions, is another compromise between short traverse, with 
small production, and even yarn on the one side, and long 
traverse, greater production, and more uneven yarn on the 
other. The longer the traverse the greater is the variation in 
length of yarn between front roll and traveler. If a 
traverse is 7 inches there is 7 inches more of yarn being 
spun with rail at bottom than with rail at top; whereas if 
traverse is 5 inches, the difference is but 5 inches. This 
constantly varying length introduces constantly varying 
tension through traveler, thus making minute variations 
in weight . There is also variations in twist from same 
cause. 

The maximum traverse for best work, for numbers up 
to 30, is 6^ inches, and for finer numbers, 5 to 6 inches. 

INEQUALITIES. 175. There is in the nature of the 

ring frame a small variation 
in twist, due to the traverse, whether long or 
short. It is slightly more in a 7 inch traverse 

than 6 inch, but it does not amount to more than 
one tenth of a turn per inch. In practice, the twist per 
inch is found by dividing the number of revolutions of 
spindles per minute by the number of inches per minute of 
yarn twisted. In the case of roving fraines, where the 
flyer neither approaches nor recedes from front roll the 
amount of stock twisted is the exact amount delivered by 
front roll. But in spinning frame, where the ring with 
its traveler alternately approaches and recedes, this 
amount varies. Suppose front roll delivers 420 inches 



157 

per minute, and spindle turns 8,400. If ring rail were 
still, the twist would be 8400-^420=20. If the rail tra- 
verses downward 7 inches in one minute, the yarn being 
twisted at bottom of traverse would have a twist equal to 
8400^-427=19.7. If rail traverses upward 7 inches in 
one minute, the yarn at top would receive a twist of 
8400-^-413=20.3. This makes a total variation in twist 
between bottom and top of .6 turns per inch, or about 
three per cent. In the case of filling wind, where traverse 
is about i^ inches, this variation would seem to be very 
much less. But as a matter of fact, the filling traverse is 
much quicker than warp traverse, so that it traverses 
about as many inches per minute in one case as in the 
other, thus producing about the same variation in twist 
per inch. But as filling twist is naturally less per inch 
than warp, the same variation per inch would be a greater 
variation in per cent. 

Discussed as an abstract theory, the above calculation 
is not absolutely correct, because it is based on the 
assumption that twist is governed by the revolutions per 
minute of spindle, whereas it is in point of fact, governed 
by the revolutions of travelers as shown below. The 
relative difference in twist between top and bottom of 
traverse, however, would, in any case, be about the same 
as in the above calculation. 

There is a variation in, stretch between full bob- 
bin and empty bobbin, due to the fact that the traveler 
pulls harder when bobbin is empty, and hence stretches 
yarn more than when bobbin is full and traveler pulls 
easier. 

There is also a variation in twist between empty and 
full bobbin. 

The amount of twist put into yarn is generally consid- 
ered tO' be the ratio between yarn delivered by front roll, 
and the speed of spindle. This is near enough ^the truth 
to use as an easy basis for calculation. But as a matter of 
fact, the twist is produced by the revolution of traveler, 
and not the spindle. As the traveler revolves somewhat 



158 

slower than spindle, the actual twist is a little less than 
the calculated, and varies within small limits, from empty 
to full bobbin. Suppose empty bobbin is 2 inches in cir- 
cumference, and front roll deUvers 400 inches per minute, 
and spindle runs 8000 revolutions. If twist were produ- 
ced by spindle, the twist would be 8000-^-400=^20 per 
inch. But traveler must lag behind spindle and bobbin 
(400-^2^)200 revolutions, and will therefore run but 
7800. Hence the real twist will be 7800-^400=19.5, 
which is about 2^ per cent, less than calculated. Suppose 
when bobbin is full, it measures 5 inches in circumference, 
traveler must sag (40o^-5=)8o revolutions, and will run 
but 7920. Hence the twist will be 7920-^400=19.8. 
This makes a difference in twist of .3 turns per inch 
between bobbin at beginning and at end of set. 

176. Another cause of variation in stretch of yarn, is 
the varying length between thread guide and ring rail. 
The length is greater when ring rail is at bottom. If the 
weight of traveler be selected to suit the conditions at bot- 
tom of traverse, that is, to control the ballooning, the pull 
of traveler will exert a stretch on a longer portion of yarn 
than when rail is at top, and hence will produce a smaller 
amount of stretch per inch. When at top the stretch 
per inch will be greater. It is possible to put on a trav- 
eler that will run properly at bottom of traverse, but 
break down yarn at top. On the other hand, if traveler 
be selected light enough for the top, the ballooning will 
be excessive at the bottom, and might break down yarn 
by thrashing against separator; or in the absence of these, 
by entangling with adjacent bobbins. The traveler is 
selected to compromise these conditions, so that the 
machine may run; but the irregularities of stretch and 
tightness of bobbin wind still remain. It will be noted 
that while inequality of stretch is governed by varying 
distance between thread guide and ring rail, inequality of 
twist is governed by varying distances between front roll 
and ring rail. This is for the reason that the guide eye 
terminates the top end of the balloon, while front roll ter- 



159 

minates top end of twist. At one time, there was con- 
siderable money spent in making a spinning frame, in 
which spindles traversed up and down, while ring rail 
stood still. Theoretically this would eliminate the ine- 
qualities ol both stretch and twist, or so much of it as 
results from this cause. The mechanical difficulties in 
the way of perfecting this machine were never overcome. 
There is som^e experimenting now bemg done in making 
a movable thread guide, which will traverse up and down 
with ring rail, similar to the separator. This, if success- 
ful, will not only reduce inequality of stretch, but may 
diminish the total stretch by allowing a lighter traveler to 
be used ; or if the same traveler is used it may reduce the 
necessity for separators. 

Notwithstanding ah the theoretical imperfections of 
ring spinning, it has taken a firm hold on the spinning 
industry, and has reduced the cost of spinning. The 
labor required is about lo per cent, less than for mule 
spinning, and the space occupied is about half. 

177. It has been stated that spindles in ring frames 
run clockwise. This is the usual custom; and traveler 
clearers and other things about the mill, are made to cor- 
respond. But there is no reason in the nature of the case 
why spindles should not run either way. 

CALCULATIONS. 178. In the operation of a mill, the 

only calculations necessary on 
a spinning frame, are for draft, twist and production. 
These are made on the same principles as for roving 
machinery. 

Referring to Fig. 27, (and noting that front roll is 8 
eighths diameter and back roll 7 eighths,) and considering 
the back roll the driver, the formula for draft constant 
would be: 

8 X 84 X 128 
7 X — X 30 
This works out 409.6. Divide the above constant by any 
draft required and the result will be the gear to use. 



160 

179- As previously shown, the twist is quotient 
obtained by dividing spindle speed by inches delivered. 
On the spinning frame, it is usually calculated by assum- 
ing speed of tin cylinder to be i. On this assumption, 
the spindle speed may be found by dividing the diameter 
of tin cylinder by effective diameter of spindle whorl. But 
on account of possible variation of diameter and tension 
of spindle band, the best way is to actually turn the cylin- 
der by hand, exactly one turn, and count the turns of 
spindle. Suppose this to count 7.75. Suppose the twist 
gear to be 28. The inches delivered by front roll for 
one turn of cylinder will be 

30 X 28 X I X 3.1416 
90 X 112 

This works out .26. Dividing 7.75 by .26 gives as the 
twist 29.9. Written as a complete formula, the twist 
would be 

90 X 112 X 7.75 



30 X 28 X I X 3.1416 

This works out 29.9, as before. An increase of i tooth in 
this twist gear decreases twist in yarn about i per inch. 
Decrease of i tooth increases twist about i per inch. 

The formula for twist constant would be the same as 
above, with the twist gear 28 left out. It would work 
out, 834, which, of course is 28 times the twist. Dividing 
the constant by any twist required will give the gear to 
use. I 

A good way to verify calculation on twist, or to quickly 
find out the twist on any given frame, is tO' find out revo- 
lutions of spindle per minute by actual count; find out 
revolutions of front roll by actual count; rnultiply this 
count by circumference of front roll to get inches per min- 
ute; divide revolutions of spindle by inches of yarn. The 
result is twist per inch. 

180. The speed of a spinning frame is designated by 
speed of front roll. When this is given — say lOQ — the 



161 

speed to run driving pulley is obtained by considering the 
front roll as the driver, and writing the formula: 
ICO X 112 X 90 
28 X 30 
This works out 1200. With a given front roll speed, the 
tin cylinder (and driving pulley) speed will vary with the 
twist gear, the larger the twist gear the slower the pulley 
speed necessary. 

Production. 181. Speed of front roll per minute 

multiplied by its circumference 
in inches will give theoretical production in inches. This 
multiplied by 60 and 1 1 will give the inches per day. This 
divided by 36 and 840 will give hanks per spindle per day. 
Written as a formula this would be: 

100 XIX 3.1416 X 60 X II 
36 X 840 
This works out 6.9 hanks per spindle per day of 1 1 hours, 
if running all the time. An allowance of 10 per cent must 
be made for doffing and other stops. The actual result 
to be expected is therefore 6.2 hanks. 

If spinning number 40, the pounds per spindle per day 
would be 6.2H-40=.i5. 

GENERAL DATA. 182. Spinning frames are made 36 

inches or 39 inches wide, as 
ordered. On account of allowing long-er spindle bands 
the 39 inch frames are considered better; but on account 
of saving in space, 36 inch frames have become practically 
universal in the South. They are usually made about 27 
feet long and contain more or less spindles for that 
length according tO' the gauge. A coiiimon gauge for 
numbers 16 to 30 is 2f inches. The ordinary number of 
spindles for such frames is 208, being T04 on a side. There 
are 8 spindles between roll stands, and hence the number 
of spindles on a side should be a multiple of 8. Thus 104 
spindles would require fluted rolls to be in 13 sections. 

Frames are made longer or shorter, and with greater or 
fewer number of spindles as ordered. 



162 

Including space for alleys around frames, the floor 
space for spinning is considered to average about i square 
foot per spindle. 

Floor space for 5,000 spindles would be about 5,000 
square feet, or say 67 x 75 feet. 

Most modern mills have their floors supported by heavy 
timbers running across the building 8 feet centre to cen- 
tre. These timbers are supported by columns standing 
about 25 feet centre to centre. Hence there are rows of 
columns 8 feet apart one way by 25 feet the other. The 
width of the mill is some multiple of 25 feet, as 75. 100, 
125, and the length is a multiple of 8 feet. 

It is usual to place 4 lines of spinning frames length- 
wise mill, in a 25 foot space. Allowing i foot for the 
thickness of columns, this would give 6 feet space for 
each frame : 3 feet for frame and 3 feet for alley. This is a 
fair allowance. It is feasible to place them nearer, even 
2^ feet; but this is not desirable, unless there is some 
special object to be attained. 

Mills are sometimes built with columns in rows 10 feet 
8 inches centre to centre, with a view to placing frames 
crosswise. With round columns 8 inches in diameter, 
the clear space in a bay would be 10 feet. Two frames 
are placed in this space. As frames themselves occupy 6 
feet, only 4 feet is left for 2 alleys, so they are only 2 feet 
wide opposite columns, and 2 feet 4 inches elsewhere. 
Some floor space is saved by this arrangement, and alleys 
are lighted better from the side windows; but a serious 
objection to it is the way columns obstruct the work of 
doffing and piecing. Every other alley with this arrange- 
ment, contains columns, while with the other arrange- 
ment, only every fourth alley contains columns. Another 
objection is the way in which frames must be driven. 
Shafting always runs lengthwise building, and hence 
guide pulleys or quarter turn belts must be resorted to for 
frames standing crosswise. 

On account of more or less sag in floor beams, it is 
harder to- keep crosswise frames leveled. 



163 

The weight of a spinning frame is about 25 
pounds per spindle. The cost varies with the specifica- 
tions, but win average about $3.15 per spindle. 

The power required is about i horse power for 100 
spindles, or say 2 horse power for i frame. The character 
of spindle oil used, and the tightness with which spindle 
bands are tied on, and many other small details make 
variations in the amount of power consumed. 

183. Fluted rolls are made single or double boss 
(sometimes called short or long boss, respectively) and 
the top rolls are solid or shell (loose boss) in the same way 
as for roving frames. Single or short boss spinning rolls 
are more generally used in the South. 

184. Top rolls are made with two bosses, and are 
reduced to a small diameter in the middle. The saddle 
rests on this small portion, across all three rolls. Stirrup 
passes between front and middle roll, so that the most 
weight will be on front roll. 

Lever is made with notches for adjusting the leverage 
of weight. 

Front rolls on spinning frames, as well as other 
machines that have drawing rolls, are made larger than 
the back rolls in order to stand the heavier weighting on 
the front roll. 

SPECIFICATIONS. 185. Following is a sample specifi- 
cation blank to be filled out in 
ordering spinning frames. The same form answers for 
both warp and filling frames; but warp frame specifica- 
tions should be fiJled out on one blank and filHng on 
another: 

Number of Frames 

Warp or Filling 

Number to be Combination Frames 

Combination to be set for Warp or Filling 

Width of Fram^e (36 inches or 39 inches) 

Length of Frame over all 

Number of Spindles per Frame 



164 



Gauge of Spindles 

Kind of Spindles 

Kind of Ring 

Burnished Ring or not (extra) 

Diameter of Ring 

Ring Holder (cast iron or plate) 

Separators 

Length of Traverse 

Saddle 

Lever Screw 

Thread Guide 

Rolls, Single (short) or Double (long) Boss 

Rolls, solid or shell 

Creels: one or two stories 

Single or Double Roving 

Size of Bobbin in Creel 

Hank of Roving in Creel 

Number Yarn to spin 

Twist per inch 

Size of Tin Cylinder 

Size of Spindle Whorl 

Size of Driving Pulleys 

Pulleys to be on Gear End or on Out End . 

Driven from above or below 

Speed of Driving Pulleys 

Maker ^ ' 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 



CHAPTER IX. 

fiDule Spinning, 

1 86. As mule spinning has not been much introduced 
in the South, the subject will not be minutely treated. A 
complete elementary treatise on all the mechanism and 
calculations for the mule would make a book in itself. 

While the mule, as an autoimatic machine is complica- 
ted, the broad principles involved are the same as in the 
oldest hand spinning. The roving is drawn out while 
being spun, and is spun intermittently, and is wound on 
"cop" (or bobbin) intermittently. 

SPINNING nULE.— FIG. 31.— IvETTERiNG. 

A. Creel. 

B. Bobbin in Creel. 

C. Skewer for Bobbin. 

D. Bottom Fluted Rolls. 

E. Top Rolls. 

F. F.' Spindle. 

G. G.' Cop. 

H, H.' Whorl ou Spindle. 

J, ].' Tin CyHnder. 

K, K.' Carriage. 

L, L.' Wheels under Carriage. 

M. Head Stock. 

N. Fallers. 

P. Yarn being spun. 

SPINNIN(i nULE— 187. Roving is put up in creels, 
Process. and drawn through rolls, same as 

in ring spinning. 

Spindles, instead of being in a stationary rail, are moun- 
ted in a carriag-e, which alternately moves away from and 
back tO' the rolls, a distance of about 5 feet. 

Spindles revolve right or left handed as desired. As 



166 

yarn emerges from front roll, it is twisted over the top 
end of spindle, being held there by the "fallers." 

Spindles and carriage recede as fast as yarn is delivered, 
in some cases about 5 per cent, faster, making an addi- 
tional draft. The movement of carriage is called the 
"stretch." 

At end of stretch, rolls are automatically stopped, spin- 
dles are stopped and reversed in motion, while the falling 
rods guide yarn away from point of spindle to the place 
where it is to be wound up. This is called "backing off." 

After pausing at end of stretch, carriage approaches 
rolls again, while spindles revolve in the original direction 
again, this time winding (generally on the bare spindle) 
the yarn that was spun on outward stretch. 

188. The character of winding is controlled by action 
of "fallers" or "falling rods." They move downw^ard 
quickly, and wind a layer of yarn in coarse rows ; and move 
upward more slowly, winding a layer in line rows. The 
result is that one layer is tO' some extent crossed over 
another. This holds the cop together after it is removed 
from spindle. 

On account of the fact that there is no bobbin to hold 
yarn, the shape in w-hich cop is wound is very important. 

Fig. 26 C, shows the manner of building a cop. The 
lines indicate successrive layers of yarn. The "chase'' of 
fallers (extent of their traverse) is short at first, say i inch, 
and puts short layers on spindle near the bottom. Grad- 
ually the chase is increased, and its starting point raised 
each time in the same way as filling wind, ring spinning. 

This action continues until the full size of cop is 
attained at lower part. This is called the "cop bottom." 
The amoimt of chase then remains the same, but it con- 
tinues to start higher, with each successive layer, in such 
a ratio that most of the cop will be cylindrical. Toward 
the upper end, the amount of chase begins to decrease, 
and make the taper of the yarn layers less sharp. This 
proceeds until the top end of spindle is reached. 

189. Cop is now dof¥ed, and is a mass of yarn with a 
small hole through the centre. In order to keep it in 



168 

shape, a small wooden pin or "skewer" is sometimes run 
through it. It is then said to be "skewered." 

190. There is no harsh treatment of yarn, or unequal 
straining in its production on the mule, and hence it is 
possible tO' spin a finer, softer and more even yarn on the 
mule than on ring frame. 

The limit of fineness on a ring frame is its ability to 
resist traveler pull. Ordinarily No. 60 is the finest that is 
spun on a ring frame, though it is possible, under the best 
circumstances, with good stock, hard twist and slow speed, 
to spin No. 100. With a mule No. 500 has been spun, 
even with soft twist. Advocates of mule spinning claim 
that as high as No. 700 can be spun on mules. 

A certain degree of hardness or twist is necessary on a 
ring frame, to give the yarn strength to stand traveler 
pull. 'I he absence of this strain enables the mule to spin 
with less twist. This also enables the mule to spin stock 
with exceedingly short staple 

On the ring frame, a thin place occurring in yarn 
between front roll and spindle will naturally receive more 
twist than the thicker parts, and thus accentuate the 
thinness. On the mule, the thin place will receive the most 
twist at first. But by reason of this twist, it will become 
stronger than the thicker part, and will resist the stretch- 
ing process between front roll and spindle. The thicker 
part will thus become more stretched and equalized with 
the thin. 

The finest yarn in the world is spun in Asia by hand on 
a spinning wheel, whose principles are those of the mule. 
The greatest skill is necessary for this fine hand spinning. 

This same skill is in a measure, necessary for fine soft 
mule spinning; and the limit of fine work for the mule is 
mostlv in the skill of the spinner. 

HEADSTOCK. 191. Power is transmitted to the 

various parts of the mule from the 
"headstock," which is a frame, as shown at M, Fig. 31, 
fastened to the fioor. A belt from line shaft or counter- 
shaft drives pulleys in the headstock. called "rim pulleys." 



169 



The driving- shaft, on which these puheiys are. may be 
parallel with the carriage of mule, or it may be at righ- 
ano-les with it, according as required to suit existmg shatt- 
ing. The former arrangement is described as liavmg 
"r?m at side," the latter as having "rim at back." 

A series of ropes, winding on drums, driven from head- 
stock, impart the required forward and backward motion 
to the carriages. 

A headstock is usually near the centre of mule, and 
drives a certain number of spindles on each side of it. 
Mules are usuaUy set up in pairs, facing each other, and tai 
enough apart, so that when the carriages are at their out- 
most point of travel, there will be room for the spinner to 
walk in the alley. Fig. 31 shows only one mule, ihe 
carriage sbo^wn in full lines is at its outward stretch, while 
the dotted lines show the same carriage when at nearest 
point to the roUs. 

Each one of a pair of mules has its own headstock. 
They are designed so that headstocks will not come 
exactly opposite each other. Headstocks are genera y 
designed with reference to posts in the budding, ihc 
amount that headstock lacks of being in the centre ot 
mule is called its "offset." 

iq^ The entire distance from back of creel on_^oiie 
mule to back of creel on the other is about 20 feet. Each 
mule requires about 9 feet from back of its creel to the end 
of carriage stretch. 

iQ-i A mule mav be set crosswise the mill, that is par- 
allel with the floor^beams; or it may be set lengthwise. 
In the former case, there is not room between the columns 
for a mule in an ordinary 8 foot bay. Buildings designed 
for mules generally have bays 10 feet 8 inches from centre 
to centre, and sometimes 11 feet. If mules are^ placed 
lengthwise, only one pair may be set in one span between 
columns. Spans are generally 25 feet from centre to 
centre, and a pair of mules occupy 20 feet, and there is 
some waste room. Hence the crosswise setting is more 
economical of room. 



170 

There is another reason why crosswise setting is pre- 
ferable. In mills lighted mainly from the side, a mule 
setting across the building will receive light down the 
alleys both back and rear, in all positions, and will not 
cast shadows and obstruct the light to the same extent as 
if set lengthwise. In the rare cases where mule rooms 
are well lighted through the roof, there is not so much 
difference in this respect. 

GENERAL DATA. 194. Mules may be made any 

length up to, about 125 feet. An 
average length is about 100 feet. The number of spin- 
dles in that length varies with the gauge. The headstock 
and end frames take up about 5 feet of the length of a 
mule, hence its length may be approximated by multiply- 
ing the gauge by number of spindles (and dividing by 12 
to reduce to feet) and adding 5 feet tO' result. Thus a 
mule with 480 spindles and 2 inch gauge would be about 
85 feet long. A mule with 800 spindles and i^ inch 
gauge would be about 88 feet long. 

Mules are ordered with small gauge for fine numbers 
and larger gauge for coarse numbers. Mules may be 
ordered with smaller gauge than ring frames for the same 
numbers. This is for the reason that, with the mule, it is 
not necessary to provide space for ballooning, or for 
thickness of rings. For No. 20 yarn, the mule gauge 
would be about if, and ring gauge 2f. 

195. The floor space occupied by mrjles depends upon 
the manner of placing them in building, and on the gauge. 
For spinning numbers from 10 to 30, with the best econ- 
omy of room, mules occupy about i^ square feet of floor 
space per spindle. In a building not designed for the 
purpose, they would occupy about 2 square feet per spin- 
dle. 

The production of mules is about 10 per cent, less per 
spindle than ring frames. The cost of labor is about 10 
per cent, more per pound of product. The value of pro- 
duct is ID to 20 per cent. more. The cost of the mule 



17i 

is about 20 per cent, less per spindle than cost of ring 
frames. 

SPECIFICATIONS. 196. Following is a sample speci- 
fication blank to be filled out in 
ordering mules 

Number of Mules 

Number spindles in each Mule 

Gauge of Spindles 

Kind and Length of Spindles 

Length of Stretch 

Amount of Gain in Stretch 

Number Spindles each side of Head, (Offset) 

Diameter Fluted Rolls, Front . . . ; Middle . . . ; Back. . . 

Number Threads to i Boss 

Top Rolls .... Direct or Lever Weighted .... Shell or 

Solid 

Creels, i, 2 or 3 stories high .... For Double or Single 

Roving 

Length of Creel Skewer 



Size of Bobbin in Creel 

Hank of Roving 

Roving tO' be Single or Double .... 

Range of Yarn Numbers to be Spun Number to 

start on 

Range of Draft Draft tO' start on 

Range of Twist Twist to start on 

Rim. Pulley to be at Back or Side 

Diameter Rim Pulley Speed 

To Belt from Above or Below 

Send sketch showing position of mill columns, for loca- 
tions of headstocks 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price . 

Terms 

Remarks 



CHAPTER X. 

preparation of l^arn for Meaning. 

197. Yarn is spun either for utilization on the premi- 
ses — in weaving, knitting, etc. — or for shipment to mar- 
ket as yarn. In either case, it requires a certain amount 
of preparation. 

Considering first the preparation of warp for weaving 
brown goods (or goods not dyed,) the processes are: 
SpooHng, Warping, Slashing or Sizing, Drawing-in. 

Spooling. 198. The object of spooling is to take 

yarn from bobbins, on which it has been 
spun and wound with irregular tension, and to rewind it 
regularly on spools, which hold the yarn from 10 to 15 
bobbins. 

SPOOLER. — FIQ. 32. — Lettering. 

A. Spinning Bobbin, in Holder 

B. Bobbin Holder 

C. Traverse Rod 

D. Thread Guide 

E. Spool, being wound 

F. Tin Cylinder 

G. Rock Shaft 
H. Rock Arm 

J. Connecting Rod 

K. Lifting Rod 

L. Bobbin Box. 

M. Empty Spool Box 

N. Full Spool Box 

Spooler — Process. 199. Bobbins are supported on 

spindles, or in some special 
form of bobbin holder, which allows it to revolve. 

Yarn from bobbin passes through thread guide, which 
is fast to the traverse rod. 




Fio". 32. Spooler 



174 

Traverse rod moves up and down, a distance equal to 
the "lift" or length of spool barrel, and guides the yarn 
evenly on the spool. 

Spindles are driven from tin cylinder with stout twisted 
yarn bands. 

Spindle is made with a broad flange on which the spool 
rests. Spool fits loosely over spindle, and rests on the 
broad ffange of spindle. It is made to revolve by the 
friction of its weight on this flange. 

The fact that spools are driven, not by any positive 
grip, but by light friction of its own weight on spmdle 
flange, causes yarn to be laid on with light and fairly uni- 
form tension. There is danger of badly stretching the 
yarn by excessive speed of machine. This should be 
guarded against by providing spooler spindles enough to 
take care of the yarn. 

From the fact that a spooler will run and wind yarn 
with apparent success at a speed considerably greater than 
is best for the yarn, there is a temptation to run the 
machine too fast. 

A spooler runs at a uniform number of revolutions per 
minute, and therefore the yarn is wound on the barrel of a 
full spool with greater velocity (or greater number of 
yards per minute) than on empty spool. The speed 
of machine must therefore be fixed at such a point 
as not to strain the yarn when at its greatest 
velocity. This speed varies with different num- 
bers of yarn and wath different kinds of stock. On the 
average, however, for numbers i6 to 30, the spindles 
should not exceed 800 to 700 revolutions. As the tin 
cylinder or driving shaft is usually 3 or 4 times diameter 
of spindle whorl, its speed should not exceed 250 to 175. 
Coarser yarns will stand higher speed and finer yarns 
should have slower speeds. 

200. There is a number of different mechanisms in 
use for producing the traverse motion, most of which are 
so arranged as to be adjustable for various lifts of spool, 
and so designed as to pile up the yarn rather higher in 
the middle of spool than at ends, thus winding a barrel 



175 

shaped spool, which naturally holds more than a perfect 
cylinder. 

The lifting rods are placed about four feet apart, and are 
actuated by arms fastened to rock shaft. The point of 
attachment of connecting rods to- rock arms is movable, 
so that amount of traverse may be adjusted. The point 
of attachment of lifting rod to connecting rod is also mov- 
able so that the position of traverse may also be adjusted. 
Thus it is possible to adjust amount of traverse, say from 
5 to 7 inches, and also the point at which traverse begins. 
Both of these adjustments are important, and should be 
independently made, first the amount, and then the posi- 
tion. The amount should be about y-g- inch less than lift 
of spool. The position should be such that this -^ inch is 
equally divided between the two flanges of spool, thus 
guiding the yarn to within -^i i^^h of each flange or head. 
If yarn runs closer than this, the head will grow too large, 
and yarn will tangle when being wound off. If it stops 
much short of this amount, the yarn will wind shorter 
for awhile but finally jump over intO' the space at ends 
and tangle when unwinding. 

20I. There is a variety uf thread guides. Some of 
them not only guide the yarn on spool, but serve to break 
it whenever knots or lumps occur. This guide is made in 
twoi parts, so that the space through which yarn passes is 
adjustable, thus limiting to any desired extent the size of 
knot or lump that may pass. These guides are also adjus- 
table as to position on traverse rod; so that should any 
one spool wind too high (having yarn rub and pile up 
against top flange of spool,) or too low, the individual 
guide may be moved to correct the trouble. 

Production. 202. For average Southern condi- 

tions, a spool is 6 inches long- 
between heads, and heads are 4 inches diameter. It is 
known as a 4 x 6 spool. The barrel is i^ inches diameter, 
and the hole in centre f inches in diameter. The diameter 
of spool when half full is about 3 inches, and its circum- 
ference at that point about 9^ inches. If spindle runs 



176 

8oo revolutions per minute, the hanks wound per day of 

1 1 hours would be theoretically. 

9^ X 800 X 60 X II 
36 X 840 
This works out 166 hanks per spindle per day with no 
allowance for stopping. Allowing 20 per cent, this would 
be 133 per day. Spooling No. 20, this would be 6^ 
pounds. If No. 30, it would be 4^ pounds. Generally 
speaking, i spindle of spooler will wind yarn produced by 

12 to 15 spinning spindles. 

General Data. 203. Spoolers have spindles on 

both sides, the same as spinning- 
frames. They are about 4 feet wide, including bobbin 
boxes and vary in length according to number of spindles 
and gauge. A spooler for 4x6 spools would have a 
gauge of 4f . Its length may be estimated by multiplying 
half the number of spindles b}^ the gauge in inches and 
dividing by 12 to reduce to feet. To this resvdt add i^ 
feet for end frames and driving pulley. Thus a 100 spool 
spooler would measure 

4§ X so , , . , 

-^ — +i4 =21 feet 3 mches 

12 

The weight is about 40 pounds per spindle. 

The price per spindle varies according toi gauge. A 
spooler of 100 spindles and 4^ gauge costs about $2.75 per 
spindle. Smaller gauges cost less, larger ones more. 

Driving pulleys are usually 12x2 tight and loose. 

One operative can tend 40 to 50 spindles. 

A 4 X 6 spool will hold about 18,000 yards of No. 20, or 
the yarn from 10 warp bobbins, i^ x 6^. It will hold 
double this length of No. 30. 

204. In ordering spoolers, it is always well to send to 
the shop a sample spool if spools are already on hand. If 
ordering a new outfit, request the maker of spoolers to 
send to spool makers specifications or sample, so that 
spools will fit machine. 

The English call spoolers "Bobbin winding machines." 



177 

Specifications. 205. Following is a sample blank 

to be filled out in ordering spool- 
ers: 

Number of Spoolers 

Number of Spindles on each Machine 

Kind of Bobbin Holders 

Kind of Spindles 

Gauge of Spindles 

Amount of Traverse : 

Kind of Bobbin Boxes (wood or iron) 

Number of Yarn to be Spooled 

Diameter of Bobbin of Yarn 

Size Driving Pulley 

Speed Driving Pulley 

Belted from Above or Below 

Send Sample Bobbin 

Send Sample Spool 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 

206. The next process after spooling is unwinding a 

number of spools and laying the strands or "ends" evenly 

on a "beam," which is, in effect, a large spool. The 

machine for accomplishing this work is known as a beam 

warper. 



178 

BEAfl WARPER. — FIG. 33.— LETTERING. 

A. Spool in Creel 

B. Ends, unwinding from Spool 

C. Back Guide 
D Back Reed 

E. Slack Roll 

F. Rack for operating Slack Roll 

G. Pinion, Shaft and Weight for Slack Roll 
H. Measuring Roll 

J. Drop Wire 

K. Front Reed or Wraith 

L. Warp Beam 

M. Cylinder 

Beam Warper 207. Spools are put up in creel on 

Process. skewers so they may freely revolve. 

The creel may hold 300 to 600 
spools, but usually 400 to 450. 

The creel consists of a pair of upright frames joined at 
one end, and opening at the other like the letter V. A 
creel for 450 spools will hold 225 in each wing of the V, 
15 spools high and 15 spools long. A creel for more than 
450 spools is made longer, but not higher. Fifteen 4x6 
spools, placed one above the other, with space to be 
handled in and out make a creel as high as can well be 
worked. 

The various ends are brought together from the creel 
and passed through back comb, and over and under the 
various rolls shown. Each end is threaded through a 
drop wire J, and through a dent in front comb and tinally 
in a sheet around barrel of beam. 

There are usually 4 countersunk pins on the barrel of 
beam, tO' which the yarn in 4 divisions is attached. 

Barrel of beam rests upon the cylinder and is turned by 
friction. 

208. The front comb is made expansible. Its teeth 
are mounted on a movable device so that by turning a lit- 
tle crank at one end, the fineness of the teeth may be regu- 
lated. This is for the purpose of uniformly distributing 



180 

the sheet of yarn, (no matter what the number of ends) 
over the whole width of machine or length of beam upon 
which it is wound (generally 54 inches.) If 400 ends are 
being warped, the comb is adjusted to 400 teeth in 54 
inches; if 300 ends, comb is stretched out so that only 300 
teeth occupy 54 inches. "Reed" and "heck" and "wmith" 
are other names for this front comb. 

Stop Motion. 209. A most important adjunct 

to^ the warper is the stop motion. 
It is necessary that the entire number of ends continue to 
be wound throughout the beam. To accomplish this, 
each end must pass through some kind of an eye, ("drop 
wire") which is connected to a stop motion in such a way 
that when an end breaks, the eye will drop and stop the 
machine. As in the case of the drawing frame (47, 48) 
there are mechanical and electrical stop motions. The 
drop wires shown in Fig. 33 belong to a mechanical stop 
motion. The bars J are caused to oscillate by the running 
of machine. As long as each end is passing properly 
through its eye, the bars continue to oscillate. If one 
end breaks down the corresponding eye falls and obstructs 
the oscillation. 

These bars are so arranged that when they stop oscilla- 
ting, they liberate a latch which normally holds belt shifter 
in such a position that belt is on tight pulley. Belt 
shifter is weighted so that when latch is released it moves 
belt on to loose pulley. 

210. The electrical stop motion is made on the princi- 
ples explained in (49). Fig. 33 shows the warp ends pass- 
ing through drop wires on the machine. This is the 
mechanical stop motion. The electrical stop motion is 
shown on the creel in connection with the Denn warper. 
The detail is shown in Fig. 34. 

The ends pass through drop wires on the creel. Each 
creel rod z has two copper strips, x, y. fastened to it. The 
drop wire w is hinged on strip y, which is connected by 
wires to one pole of dynamo. The strip x is connected 




X Y 

Fig. 34. Llectric Stop Motion on Creel. 



183 

to the other pole. When the machine is running and all 
the ends are up, the drop wires are pulled up as shown in 
full lines in Fig. 34. If any end breaks, its corresponding 
drop wire will fall into the position shown by dotted lines. 
This makes the electrical connection which enables the 
dynamO' tO' generate current. The current makes a mag- 
net which operates to shift the belt on loose pulle3^ 

Sometimes, in connection with this stop motion, there 
is an annunciator which shows which particular end is 
down. It works exactly like the annunciator in a hotel 
ofifice, which shows in which room a button has been 
pressed. 

Knock-Off Motion. 211. There is another stop 

motion on a beam warper, 
which is made to stop the machine when a certain number 
of yards of yarn has been beamed. As will be shown in con- 
nection with the slasher, it is of the greatest importance 
that each warper beam shall contain exactly the same num- 
ber of yards. This stop motion is called the "knock ofif 
motion," and is illustrated in Fig. 35. 

On the end of the measuring roll H, Fig. 33, is a worm 
V, Fig. 35. This worm turns a gear N on a shaft carrying 
another worm P, which also turns a gear Q on the shaft 
R, carrying a coarse square threaded screw. A bar S 
rests in this screw, and is fed along as the screw turns. 

The bar S will finally run off the end of screw R and 
drop down. As it does so, the other end T operates the 
stop motion and machine stops. The length of time 
required for S to feed out to end of screw depends upon 
how far from the end of screw, S is placed when machine 
is started. The bar S slides along shaft U, and may be put 
anywhere on the screw. 

All of the yarn that is beamed passes over the measur- 
ing roll. This roll is made ^ yard in circumference. There- 
fore if we can determine how many times measuring roll 
turns to I of screw R, we will know how many yards of 
yarn is represented by each thread of the screw R. 



184 

Consider each worm as a gear with one tooth, and 
take the gears as marked in Fig. 35. Considering the 
screw R the driver, the nnml^er of times H tnrns to i of 
R is determined by the formula 

100 X 80 



I X I 

This is 8,000. The number of yards measured is -I of 
8,000, or 2,000. By changing either of the gears, any 
other number of yards may be arranged for one revohition 
of R. Whatever this amount is, it is called a "wrap." If 
on this particular machine a wrap is 2,000 yards, and it is 
desired to wind 10,000 yards on a beam, 5 wraps are 
required. The bar S is placed 5 threads from the end of 
the screw. In 5 revolutions of screw. S will drop down and 
stop the machine. 

212. The wrap gearing must be so calculated that the 
warp beam will run about full with a whole number of 
wraps. For example, if a beam will hold 16,000 yards, 
the knock off motion above described must be set to 8 
wraps. If, however, the beam will hold only 15,000 yards, 
the gears must either be changed, or it must be set at 7 
wraps and wind 14000 yards and stop. This is done so 
that each beam will stop with the same number of yards 
on it. 

213. Whenever the warper stops, the spools, by their 
momentum will continue to run for a moment, and some 
yarn will be unwound from spools which cannot be taken 
up by the machine, because machine is stopped. 

The slack roll E, Fig. 33, is designed to evenly take up 
this slack, and prevent the yarn from becoming loose and 
kinky. 

There are two kinds of slack rolls: the falling roll, and 
the rising roll. The latter is the one shown in Fig. 33. 
The yarn passes under a roll which is in a fixed journal, 
and over the rising roll, which is mounted in a frame 
weighted in such a way that when yarn becomes slack it 
will rise and take up the slack. 

The falling roll accomplishes the same purpose in a 



185 

simpler way by merely lying on the top of the sheet of 
yarn, and haMng tlie journals work in upright slots ni the 
frame of machine itself. When yarn becomes slack, its 
weight carries it down in the slots until yarn is tight. 
While the falling roll has the advantage of simplicity, and 
is more generally used, the rising roll has the advantage 
of adjustability for different degrees of slackness. The 
amount of slack that will occur when machine stops, 
depends largely upon the friction of spools on their skew- 
ers. Iliis is variable, according to smoothness of skewers. 
It may thus become desirable to adjust the amount of 
motion of slack roll. In the case of rising roll, this adjust- 
ment may be made by varying the amount of weight hung 
on. 

SivOW Motion, 214. When the machine is ready 

to start (after it has stopped and 
slack roll has taken up the surplus yarn) if it should 
start suddenly at its usual speed, the slack roll would 
easily and quickly pull down tO' the bottom of its travel 
before any tension is exerted on spools. The consequence 
would be that the spools would be subjected to a sudden 
jerk which would break down many ends. To avoid this 
trouble, the machine is provided with a ''slow motion." 
As the same mechanism is used on the slasher, the detail 
is shown on Fig. 38. A. is a tight pulley, B, slov/ pulley, 
C, loose pulley. Loose pulley is mounted 011 one end of 
a hollow sleeve. On the other end of sleeve at D, is a 
small pinion driving a large gear E. This gear is moun- 
ted on a short shaft, the other end of which, carries a small 
pinion F, driving a larger gear G, which is fast on main 
shaft. 

When the warper is first started, the belt may be shif- 
ted on the slow pulley which will start the machine at a 
reduced speed. When the slack is all taken up, the belt 
may be shifted on to the regular fast pulley. 

The belt shifter is usually connected to a treadle, so 
that the whole operation of starting slow and speeding up 
may be performed in a moment with the foot. 



186 

215- When beam has run fuh, it is taken off ("doffed") 
and carried away on a beam truck, and an empty beam is 
put in place. The okl spools are taken out of creel and 
full ones put in their place, one at a time, tying the end 
from each new spool, as put in, to the corresponding yarn 
from old spool. Generally, the spool does not run empty; 
but as it does not hold enough for two warp beams, it is 
found better to take it out and fill it up again at the 
spooler. 

It requires about tw^o hours to doff, re-creel and start 
a new beam. 

Production. 216. The cylinderisusually about 18 

inches diameter, and runs 30 to 50 
revolutions per minute. Its surface speed is therefore 50 
to 70 yards per minute. 

Since the yarn beam revolves by surface contact with 
this cylinder, the surface speed of cylinder, as above, will 
be the number of yards per minute that will be warped 
from each spool. If machine is running 70 yards per min- 
ute, the yards per day of 1 1 hours from each spool would 
be 70 X 60 X 11=^46,200, if running all the time. From 
30 lo /JO per cent, must be allowed for stoppages, so that 
the actual production would be about 30,000 yards of v/arp 
per day. If there are 450 spools in creel, the grand total 
of yarn warped per day would be (30,000 x 450=) 13,- 
500.000 yards, or 16,000 hanks. This is about the right 
speed for No. 20. If the yarn is No. 20, the weight would 
be 800 pounds. 

Finer yarn should run slower. No. 30 should not 
exceed 60 yards per minute. The production per day 
would at this speed be -f of 16,000 or say 14,000 hanks or 
466 pounds. 

217. An average warper beam has a barrel 9 inches 
in diameter and 54^ inches long. The heads are 26 inches 
diameter. Of No. 20 yarn from 450 spools, it will 
hold 12,000 yards or 321 pounds. Thus a day's produc- 
tion of No. 20 is a little more than 2 beams, of No. 30 
yarn from 450 spools, it will hold 24,000 yards or 429 



187 

pounds. Thns a clay's production of No. 30 is about i 
beam. 

The speed of driving pulley must be determined by the 
gearing, if any, between it and the cylinder. 

218. As in the case of the spooler, a warper will run at 
a much higher speed than is good for the yarn. The 
speed decided upon is generally a compromise between 
quantity and quality. It is made faster or slower, accor- 
ding as the one or the other is most desirable under the 
circumstances. 

Generally speaking, one warper will take the product of 
1,200 to 1,500 warp spindles, or 100 spooler spindles. 

GeneraIv Data. 219. A beam warper, including 

creel for 450 spools will occupy a 
space of about 10 feet wide by 15 feet long. The length 
may be reduced i foot if desired, by placing creel nearer 
the machine. 

About 18 warp beams are furnished with a warper. 

From the fact that warp beams are carried for the next 
process to the slasher, they are sometimes called "slasher 
beams.'' They are soimetimes also called "section 
beams." 

The weight of a warper, coimplete with creel and beams 
is about 3,000 pounds. The cost is about $400. 

The machine is usually driven with a 2 inch belt. 

The "hand" of the machine is determined by standing 
in front, (or at beam) and noting whether driving pulleys 
are on right or left hand. 



188 

Specifications. 220. Following is a sample blank 

to be filled out in ordering i;eam 
warpers : 

Number of Warpers 

Number Right Hand 

Number Left Hand 

Diameter of Cylinder 

Length of Cylinder ... 

Diameter of Beam Heads 

Diameter of Beam Barrels 

Number of Beams 

Diameter of Driving Pulley 

Speed of Driving Pulley 

Belted from Above or Below 

Number of Yarn to Start on 

Size of Spool in Creel 

Length of Skewer in Spool 

Number of Spools in Creel 

Iron or Wood, or Glass steps in Creel 

Rising or Falling Slack Roll 

Send Sample Spool 

Send Sample Skewer 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 

221. The next machine to the warper is the slasher, 
v.diich is a machine for putting "size'' or starch on the yarn. 



189 

SLASHER.— FIG. 36.— LETTERING. 

A. Superfluous Beams in Creel. 

B. Warp Beams (in use) in Creel. 

C. Immersion Roll. 

D. Squeeze Rolls. 

E. Top Rolls. 

F. Small Cylinder. 

G. Large Cylinder. 

H. Hollow Shaft of Cylinder. 

K. Friction Wheels for Shaft. 

L. Lease Rods. 

M. Fan. 

N. Reed, or Heck. 

O. Front Roll. 

S. Loom Beam. 

T. Presser Roll. 

U. Presser Roll Counter Weight. 

SivASHER Process. 222. Having predetermined the 

number of ends of warp to put 
on loom beams to produce the required cloth (as 
explained in the chapter on organization,) and having 
made up the warper beams to correspond, say 5 with 408 
ends each, these 5 beams are placed in the creel. 

The beams are adjusted endwise with the hand screws 
until the heads are all in line. 

The sheet of warp is unwound by hand from the rear 
beam and carried over the next beam, where it is united 
with the sheet of warp from that, and so on with the other 
beams. 

The whole sheet is drawn through the starch box. The 
top rolls E are lifted ofi' squeeze rolls and put in the rests 
at the side of the bearings. 

The sheet is divided into about 4 parts. A small rope 
is tied to each division. The ropes are threaded around 
the cylinders as shown and pulled by hand until the sheet 
of yarn is entirely through to L. 

Ropes are united, and the yarn is divided over the lease 



190 

rods and threaded as shown, and fastened to loom beam. 

In order to effect a division of the warp at the 
lease rods, "thread leases" are put in as the warp is 
unwound from the beam. This thread lease consists of 
a small doubled cord. A thin stick is put between the 
doubled over ends of the cord, and pushed through 
between the sheets of yarn as they unwind from the beams. 
The stick is withdrawn. ♦ The cords remain, and pass 
over the cylinder with the yarn. When the first one 
reaches the first lease rod, this rod, having a flattened end, 
is pushed between the doubled cord, entirely across the 
sheet. The cord is then withdrawn. The other lease 
rods are inserted in the same manner. The yarn is thus 
divided up into as many parts at the front of the machine 
as there are beams in the creel. 

This division or leasing is made with every new set of 
warp beams. 

From the lease rods, the yarn passes through the 
front comb (or "heck," "reed," "wraith") where the ends 
are still further separated. 

223. The front comb is expansible, in the same way as 
'on the warper. It is adjusted to about the width of the 
sheet of warp. This comb has usually 300 to 350 teeth or 
"dents." The total number of warp ends is divided as 
ec|ually as possible in this comb. If there are 2040 warp 
ends and 300 dents in comb, the division would not be 
even, if all the dents are used, because if 7 ends were put 
in one dent, it would require 2100 ends to fill the comb. 
We might use only 291 dents, putting 7 warp ends in each. 
This would use 2037 ends. The other 3 could be accom- 
modated by going in another dent to themselves, thus 
using 292 in all. The division might be made in other 
ways. The object of the lease rods and the comb is to sep- 
arate the threads as much as possible, so they may lie flat 
and consecutive on the loom beam. 

When yarn has been properly placed in comb, the top 
rolls E are put in place as shown, and the immersion roll 
C run down into the size box, by a crank mechanism for 
the purpose. 



192 

224- The size box is filled from a kettle which stands 
on an elevated platform. The kettle is made of cast iron 
and has a revolving stirrer, and is provided with a steam 
pipe aronnd inside of bottom. This pipe is perforated. 

When steam is turned on, it comes out of the perfora- 
tions and heats the contents of kettle, while the stirrer 
mixes them. 

Fig. 37 shows a late improvement in starch kettles. 
There are stationary blades, as well as revolving stirrers. 
These make the mixing more thorough than in the old 
style machines, which have only the revolving stirrers. 

Revolving stirrers are mounted on an upright shaft, 
and geared 2 to i to a horizontal shaft carrying tight and 
loose pulleys lo x 2. The driving shaft should run about 
lOO, and stirrer shaft 50. 

The kettle in Fig. 37 is round, 3 feet six inches in diam- 
eter, 3 feet six inches high and weighs 1400 pounds. It 
holds about 200 gallons, and will cook 160 gallons. It is 
sold separately from the slasher and costs about $125. 

225. The size is made of starch and "softener," which 
is composed of tallow or similar grease, and an antiseptic 
like chloride of magnesia. These softeners may be 
bought in barrels prepared, ready to be mixed with starch 
in size kettle. 

Recipes for mixing size will be found in the appendix. 

When size is cooked and stirred sufficiently (the proper 
time — about 15 to 40 minutes — can only be determined by 
experience.) It is drawn through a 2^ inch or 3 inch pipe 
to the size box of slasher. This is a wooden box lined with 
copper and provided with perforated steam pipes for 
keeping size warm. It holds about 80 gallons. This 
amount will size 700 to 800 pounds of yarn. 

Steam inside the copper cylinders dries yarn as it passes 
around. 

These cylinders are 60 inches wide. The large one is 
7 feet diameter, the small one 5 feet. Steam is admitted 
through hollow shaft of cylinder. It first passes through 
a reducing valve, which is adjustable so that boiler pres- 




n n n i n n n n 



OXF 



¥ 



njLfl 



TTTT 

n n n 




Finn 
n n n 



inn] 
n n n n 



^1 



Fig. 37. Starch Kettle. 




194 

sure may be reduced to 5 to 15 pounds, or entirely shut 
off. The reducing valve is connected to the belt shifter 
in such a way that when machine is stopped, steam is 
entirely shut off. 

The opposite side of cylinder from steam inlet serves as 
an outlet for condensed steam. Inside the copper cylin- 
der, close to the shell are cups, extending across entire 
cylinder. These cups are so set that they lift the conden- 
sed water and deliver it through a pipe out of hollow 
shaft of cylinder. It is important to have cylinders put 
in the frames correctly when machine is first set up, so 
that they may run in the right direction for cups to lift 
the water. The makers commonly put arrows on the out- 
side of cylinder to indicate the proper direction of revo- 
lution. The pipes leading condensed steam from the 
hollow shafts lead to steam traps which are for the purpose 
of allowing only the water to escape, and thus prevent 
waste of steam. 

Cylinders have steam valves in the heads, which may be 
easily opened to allow steam to escape in case the machine 
has to be stopped. This cools the cylinders, and to some 
extent, prevents browning the yarn. 

It is important to occasionally try the pet cocks in end 
of cylinders to see that trap is properly working and that 
the steam inside cylinders is dry. There is a gauge to 
indicate pressure of steam in cylinders, but it is possible 
for the gauge to indicate pressure while cylinders are cold, 
because of the presence in them of condensed water. 
Steam must be kept dry in order to properly dry the 
yarn. 

The fan M dries the yarn. 

The large wooden hood (which is built over the 
machine after it is set up) carries away the steam arising 
from the yarn drying on the hot cylinders. Whenever 
possible this hood should lead through the roof. If 
slasher is not in a room next to roof a large wooden flue 
from hood may be run out the side of building and turned 
up a few feet. The flue leading from slasher should 



195 

incline toward the outside of building, so the condensed 
steam will run out of the building. Sometimes, when a 
number of slashers are run in the same room, an exhaust 
fan is attached to the hoods, tO' draw out the steam. This 
is a good arrangement in any event. 

Slasher Gearing. — Fig. 38. — Lettering. 



A. 


Tight Pulley. 


B. 


Slow Pulley. 


C. 


Loose Pulley. 


D. 


Slow Pinion. 


E. 


Slow Gear. 


F. 


Reducing Pinion. 


G. 


Shaft Gear. 


H. 


Pawl. 


K. 


Ratchet Gear. 


L. 


Driving Cone. 


M. 


Fan. 


N. 


Driven Cone. 


P. 


Cone Pinion. 


Q- 


Front Roll Gear. 


R. 


Beam Gear. 


S. 


Friction Plates. 


T. 


Hand Screw Wheel. 


U. 


Loom Beam. 


V. 


Bearing for Loom Beam. 


w. 


Dog to Drive Beam. 


X. 


Front Roll Bevel. 


Y. 


Side Shaft Bevel, Front. 


Z. 


Side Shaft Bevel, Rear. 


a, b 


, Squeeze Roll Gear. 


d. e 


, Squeeze Rolls. 


f. 


Worm on Side Shaft. 


S- 


Gear to Drive Cut Marker. 


h. 


Change Gear for Cut Marker. 


k. 


Intermediate. 


1. 


Gear on Cut Marker. 


m. 


Cut Marker. 



196 

Slasher Gearing 226. Main belt on pulley A 

Operation. drives cone shaft L. This 

drives by cone belt another 
cone N. 

Cone N drives by gearing the front roll Q which draws 
the sheet of yarn and causes cylinders to revolve. 

Side shaft Y Z is driven by bevel gears X Y, Bevel gears 
on the other end drive copper squeeze rolls d, e. Heavy 
iron rolls covered with flannel rest on the copper rolls. 
Yarn passes between these at same speed as at front roll. 
Q. A pulley on driving cone L drives fan M. 

The pulley B is a slow pulley, the action of which has 
been described in connection with warper (214.) In Fig. 
38, however, is shown a ratchet and pawl, through which 
slow motion drives main shaft. When slow motion is in 
action the pawl H drives ratchet K, which is fast on main 
shaft. When main drive pulley is in action, the ratchet K 
runs and leaves the pawl. By this arrangement, slow 
pulley does not turn when belt is on main drive pulley. 
If the connection were through direct gearing, the slow 
pulley would be driven even when drive pulley is running. 
But it will work either way. 

Cut Marker. 227. On the side shaft is a worm f 

which drives the cut marker. This 
is a device for marking the warp at regular intervals, to 
indicate where to cut the piece of cloth, when woven from 
this warp. 

Worm f drives through the train f, g, h, 1, a small short 
shaft carrying a wooden disc which dips into a pot of ink 
or dye, and marks the warp at every revolution. The 
disc is not made fast to the little shaft, but is connected 
through a clutch, and counterweighted. so that as soon 
as it is carried to its topmost position in contact with the 
yarn, it falls to its lowest position, to be carried up by the 
clutch again at its next revolution. The disc is connec- 
ted in this way in order to make but a short mark on the 
yarn. If it were rigidly connected, the shaft turns so 
slowly that the mark would be many yards lone;. 




SRG4 w 

Fig. 38. Slasher Gearing. 



198 

The gear marked h is the one to change to control 
length of cut. Suppose it is desired to mark the yarn 
every 50 yards. The front roll Q is 285 inches in circum- 
ference. This roll must turn 

— TT^— =63.7 

times to deliver 50 yards, and the cut marker must turn 
once. Consider the cut marker the driver and write the 
formula 

100 X 42 X 22 

—, =63.7 

h X I X 44 

This is the same kind of formula discussed in the calcu- 
lation for roving machinery, in which the known quantity 
is substituted for the unknown in the denominator. Pro- 
ceeding thus, we write the formula 
100 X 42 X 22 
63.7 X I X 44 
This works out about 31, and this is the change gear to 
put on to mark yarn every 50 yards. 

228. Multiplying 50 by 31 gives 1550 for a constant. 
This constant may be divided by any length wanted to get 
the change gear that will make that length. If a 60 yard 
cut is wanted the gear would be i55o-=-6o=26. These 
lengths of warp must be calculated somewhat longer than 
the cut of cloth is wanted, because there is a certain 
amount of contraction in weaving. This amount varies 
with the number of the yarn in both warp and filling and 
with the character of cloth woven; but it is for ordinary 
sheetings from 5 to 7 per cent. Thus, if cloth is wanted 
in 50 yard cuts, the warp must be marked in slasher about 
53 yards. 

The squeeze rolls d, e and front roll O are made the 
same size, so that the same amount of yarn will be deliv- 
ered as received, and there will be no stretch and no sag. 
Generally, however, the front roll is covered with a few 
thicknesses of heavy sheetings toi make a perfectly smooth 
soft surface for the yarn. This makes a very slight stretch, 
but does not effect the result. 



199 

The amount of yarn delivered is governed by 
speed of front roll. The looiii beam must run just fast 
enough to take up this warp at all times. When it first 
starts, its circumference is small and it must turn faster 
than it does later after its diameter has increased. This 
variation is accomplished through the friction connection 
R, S. The hand wheel T is screwed up against the fric- 
tion plate until the yarn between front roll and loom beam 
feels tight. The amount of this tightness is noticed and 
adusted by feeling, from time to time. The tendency of the 
gear R is to run too fast even to wind the yarn on the 
smallest diameter. If the friction is screwed up too tight, 
the loo'm beam will run too fast and break the yarn. If 
the friction is too loose, the yarn will be slack on the beam. 
The adjustment must be made entirely by judgment and 
experience. It is best to err on the slack side. 

229. A pressure roll, resting on anti-friction rolls 
under the loom beam, is kept pressed tight against the 
yarn on beam by means of a counterweight. This keep'i 
it even and tight. 

It is natural, at the first glance, to assume that the 
cones are for the purpose of adjusting the tension between 
fromt roll and loom beam. But it has no connection 
whatever with, it. The position of belt on cones deter- 
mines the speed of front roll; but it controls the speed of 
friction plate R in exactly the same way, driving it, in 
fact, with the same gear, hence it does not alter the rela- 
tive speed of front roll and loom beam. This can only be 
regulated by the friction. 

230. The cones are for the purpose of varying the 
entire speed of the machine. The speed of driving pulley 
is calculated to run front roll at maximum speed desired 
when cone belt is at fastest point, and warp beams in 
creel are full. The come belt may be shifted to reduce 
speed whenever desired. The primary purpose of the 
cones is to reduce speed as the warp beams in creel 
become reduced in diameter. If speed of machine is 
adjusted to maximum allowable when beams are full, the 



200 

yarn pulls off easily, and the beams revolve slowly. As the 
set proceeds, and beams reduce in diameter, the leverage 
of yarn in turning" beams becomes reduced; and at the 
same time the beams must revolve more rapidly. 

Thus, if yarn retains its same speed, it will become 
strained. To reduce this strain, the cone belt is shifted to 
reduce speed. There is a device arranged to automati- 
cally shift belt as set proceeds, but it is not much used, 
except in cases where the capacity of slasher is strained to 
the utmost, and it is necessary to obtain all possible pro- 
duction. The cone belt is also used for reducing speed in 
case the slasher tender is temporarily called away. It is 
also used when the weather is wet, and there is so much 
humidity that yarn does not dry well on cylinder at fast 
speed. 

The slow motion is thrown into action whenever there 
are ends to piece up. Unless it becomes absolutely 
necessarv the machine should never be entirely stopped 
for the reason that the steam inside of cylinders will burn 
a brown place on the yarn. Of course it is necessary to 
stop it when loom beam runs full; but with quick and 
careful attention, the stop should be very short for doff- 
ing — not more than 2 minutes. 

A bell is attached to cut marker to ring at each mark 
so that the slasher tender will be notified in time to doff 
loom beam at a cut mark. An index is also attached to 
count the cuts, so that, if desired, a uniform number of 
cuts may be put on the loom beams. 

The front comb is adjustable in the same way, and for 
the same purpose as for warper. The adjustment is 
also used for gradually narrowing the sheet of warp when 
loom beam is full, so that warp may be piled up and 
narrowed, after the fashion of a bobbin. It is possible to 
pile up three or four cuts after beam is level full. There 
is an attachment to the comb adjuster that is arranged 
when desired, to automatically contract the comb for this 
purpose. 

231. When a loom beam is filled and ready to be taken 



201 

off, the bearing- V, Fig. 38 is slipped off the end of beam 
spindle, and the beam laid on the floor. A slasher comb 
is put in the sheet of warp to hold the threads in line. The 
slasher comb is a fine reed, with about half as many dents 
as there are ends in the warp. It is like a loom reed cut 
in two lengthwise, thus leaving the teeth exposed. When 
reed is stuck in the sheet of warp a wooden protector is 
put over the teeth and tied in place at each end. 

The warp threads are now cut and the loom beam is 
removed. 

Waste. 232. If the warper beams have been carefully 
made, with exactly the same amount of 
yarn wound on each, they will all run empty about the 
same time. If by any error at the warper more yarn is 
wound on one beam than another, this beam will have 
yarn on it when all the others have run empty, and this 
yarn will be wasted. It is usually cut off with a knife and 
sold for waste. 

There will always be a small amount of waste on the 
beams at the end of a set, and a fixed amount of waste left 
aro'und the cylinders between beams in creel and the loom 
beam, after the last loom beam is wound. Altogether it 
should not be allowed to exceed 4 pounds for amount on 
cylinders, and ^ pound for each beam in creel. W^ith 5 
beams in creel, the maximum waste should be 6^ pounds. 
This, of course, varies with counts of yarn and with num- 
ber of ends being slashed, and with the skill of the opera- 
tive. 

233. It might seem that slasher waste would be 
reduced by putting more ends on a warp beam, and thus 
using fewer beams to make up the requisite total. Thus, 
instead of using 5 beams with 408 ends each, use 4 beams 
with 510 ends each. But in doing this, a smaller number 
of linear yards can be put on each beam, and hence the 
slasher set would run out oftener. 

The waste on beams themselves would be about the 
same per cent, (of total yarn sized) in one case as in the 
other, but the most important item, the waste for each set 



202 

between creel and loom beam, would be multiplied. 
Therefore, so far as total waste is concerned, the more 
warp beams that are used for a given number of ends the 
better. But there are other practical conditions, such as 
more handling and more trouble when beams are too 
numerous, which have made the practice common to put 
only 400 to 450 ends on a beam. The exact number of 
ends and exact number of beams are governed, of course 
by the number of ends wanted in warp of cloth. 

Production. 234. The beam for a 40 inch sheet- 

ing loom is about 44 inches between 
heads. The barrel is 5 inches in diameter, and the heads 
16 inches. It will hold when level full about 900 yards of 
number 20 warp, containing 2040 ends. Of number 30 
yarn, it will hold 2,000 yards. One set of 5 warp beams 
with 408 ends each 12,000 yards will fill about 13 loom 
beams. A common speed for driving pulley of slasher is 
200 revolutions per minute. When geared as per Fig. 
38. the front roll will run 33.3 revolutions, and deliver 26 
yards per minute. This may be reduced toii3 orincreased 
to 52 by shifting the cone belt. It may be reduced to 
about one-twelfth the above by using the slow motion. 

About one loom beam per hour is the average produc- 
tion of a slasher, but may easily be doubled. 

One slasher is supposed to be sufficient for about 300 
looms. 

Coarse yarns must be run through the slasher slower 
than fine. It requires more time to take up the starch. 

Hard twisted yarns are harder to size than soft twisted. 

Uniformity in the mixing of size and in the method of 
running slasher is essential for uniformity in weight of 
cloth. 

General Data. 235. A slasher is usually furnished 

(at extra charge) with a chain hoist 
and an overhead track and carriage, running lengthwise 
over the creel. This is for the purpose of handling the 
heavy warp beams. 



203 

A slasher with one 5 foot and oiie 7 foot cyUnder, with 
creel for 8 beams, will occupy a space 7 feet wide and 40 
feet long. The top of large cylinder will be 8 feet frorn 
the floor. 

The pulleys are about 16x3. 

The power required is about 2 horse power. 

The weight is about 10,000 pounds. 

It costs about $1,300. 

For the purpose of reducing the cost, slashers are 
sometimes made with one cylinder instead of two. 
Where the production required is small, and machines 
may run very slow, this arrangement works very well. 

Specifications. 236. Following is a sample blank 

to fill out in ordering slashers: 

Number of Slashers 

Size of Beams in Creel 

Number of Beams in Creel 

Length of Loom Beams over all 

Size of Driving Pulley 

Speed of Driving Pulley 

Belted from Above or Below 

With or Without Size Kettle 

With or Without Chain Hoist 

If With Overhead Track, What Length 

Maker 

Purchaser • 

Price 

Terms . 

Remarks 



204 

DRAWING IN. 237. After warp has been sized and 
wound on loom, before going to the 
loom, it must be "drawn in.'' Every end of warp must 
be drawn through an eye in the harness and a dent in the 
reed. 

The harness and reed are, strictly speaking, parts of the 
loom, but they are taken out for the purpose of threading 
the warp through them. 

The warp beam is put on the drawing-in-frame. The 
sheet of warp is thrown over the top rod. The harness is 
suspended near the top. The operative with a drawing- 
in-hook reaches through each eye of harness and pulls a 
warp end through. 

There are two or more harnesses, according to the char- 
acter of cloth to be woven. The effect of various numbers 
of harness will be fully discussed in the chapter on weaving. 
If two harnesses are used, one end of warp is drawn 
through an eye in one harness, and the next end through 
an adjacent eye in the other harness. If more harnesses 
are used, the ends may be drawn in in various ways accord- 
ing to design of cloth. 

A "drawing-in-draft" is made to indicate how this work 
is to be done. This is made when cloth is designed. When 
warp is drawn in the harness, it is then drawn in the reed, 
while oil same frame. No matter how many harnesses 
are used, two ends are usually drawn through one dent 
of reed. Sometimes three or more are drawn in one dent 
to produce certain efifects. 

To make the selvage, from 6 to 10 ends are drawn in 
double at each edge of warp. That is, two ends instead 
of one are drawn through one harness eye, and four ends, 
instead of two are drawn through each dent of reed. 

COLORED WORK. 238. The field of weaving colored 

and fancy goods is well nigh infi- 
nite. The present discussion will deal only with the out- 
lines of the preparation of yarn for weaving ordinary plaids 
and ginghams commonly made in the South. 



205 

The dyeing is done in one of three systems: ''short 
chain," "long chain" or "raw stock." 

Short Chain 239. Yarn intended for this system is 
System. put up in "chains" for the warp and in 

"skeins" for the fiUing. The methods 
of making chains and skeins are fully discussed in chap- 
ter XIV. The short chains are in lengths of 1,000 to 
1,500 yards. These are passed through a boiling vat con- 
taining clear hot water, and then through a dye vat. The 
skeins of filling yarn are strung on sticks and dipped in 
the vats and worked over and over by hand until they 
have become sufficiently dyed. 

When the warp chains leave dye vats they are passed 
around "drying cans," which are hollow revolving cylin- 
ders filled with steam at a low pressure. The warp is 
then put on slasher beams, each color on its own beam. 
When the yarn has passed over the slasher cylinders, the 
various colors are laid in the front reed according to the 
pattern or order in which they are to appear in the cloth. 
They are wound on the loom beam in this order, and are 
"drawn in" according tO' the design intended. 

240. The dyed filling skeins are dried, generally, by 
hanging in a hot air room. They are then taken to the 
quilling machine, which winds the yarn on filling bobbins 
or "quills" ready for the loom. 

Long Chain 241. Yarn intended for this system is 
System. generally put up in what is known as 

"balls," but what, in reality, is not 
a ball in the ordinary sense. The ball warp is made 
by winding on a wooden cylinder a number of warp ends 
drawn together as one strand. This strand is traversed 
back and forth along the cylinder, crossing and recross- 
ing to prevent tangling. The ball warp may be made by 
a balling attachment to- the beam warper or to- the Denn 
warper. 

The Denn warper is described in Chapter XIV. The 



206 

ball warp may consist of any desired number of ends. If 
less than 500 to 600 ends are required, it may be made on 
the beam warper. If more ends are required, it is made 
on the Denn warper. Long chains are about 10,000 
yards long. They are frequently made 10,080 yards, to 
allow for shrinkage, waste, &c., thus assuring a net length 
of 10,000 yards. 

242. Both warp and filling yarn may be put up in long- 
chains. Long chains are boiled, dyed, dried and beamed 
the same as short chains. The chains intended for warp 
are beamed and slashed the same as short chains. That 
intended for filling is taken to a "quiller" and wound on 
"quills" or filling bobbins ready for the loom. This quil- 
ler is adapted for use with this system, and is more eco- 
nomical than the machine used to quill from skeins. This 
machine could also be used in the short chain system, 
and quill yarn from short chains, instead of from skeins. 
But the machine would require threading up so much 
oftener, on account of the short lengths, that there 
would be no saving over the skein quilling. 

Raw Stock 243. In this system, the lint cotton is 
Dyeing. put into a large dyeing machine. This 

machine consists of a revolving cylindri- 
cal cage, hanging in a dye vat in such a manner that when 
the cylinder revolves, the cotton in the cage is carried 
down into the dye stufif. When sufficiently saturated, 
the cotton is taken out, put into a centrifugal machine 
to drive out the water, and then into a dry room, arranged 
to receive a blast of air for drying. 

There is considerable trouble experienced in drying the 
cotton in such a manner as to leave it in the best worka- 
ble condition. Hot air is sometimes used but cold air 
seems to give better results. 

The dyeing of raw stock gives good opportunity tO' mix 
colors, and when the yam is spun it may be prepared for 
the market, or for weaving in exactly the same manner as 
undyed yarn. Thus the whole process of dyeing and prep- 
aration for weaving becomes considerably cheaper. 



207 

244- It is claimed that cloth \voven from raw stock 
has not the same brilliancy of color as that woven from 
dyed yarn. In order tO' compromise this condition, 
mills are sometimes designed to dye warp in the yarn, and 
to dye raw stock for spinning filling yarns. This saves 
the process of quilling, and at the same time gives to the 
warp whatever advantage in brilliancy may accrue from 
yarn dyeing. 



CHAPTER XI. 

Meavtng, 

245. Cloth consists of warp and filling. Warp is 
yarn running lengthwise the cloth. Filling is yarn run- 
ning crosswise. Weaving consists in entwining warp and 
filling in various ways to produce various designs of cloth. 

The essential operation of weaving consists in "shed- 
ding," "pickin<Tf," "beating up." "letting off" and "taking 
up." 

246. Shedding is the separation of the warp threads 
into two parts, 10 admit the filling threads. The two 
parts may be ecjual or unequal, according to the design 
of cloth. The separation of warp threads into sheds is 
effected by the harness. It has been shown (237) how 
the warp is "drawn in" for the purpose of distributing 
the threads, so that the pulling up of one or another har- 
ness raises a predetermined number of threads each time. 

247. Picking is the passing of the filling through 
warp shed. Filling comes from the spinning frame on a 
bobbin, sometimes called a quill, shown at B, Fig. 26. 
Bobbin is put into a shuttle. This shuttle, with the bob- 
bin in it, is throW'U through the shed, the filling paying 
out as it passes. 

248. Beating up is the action of the reed in beating 
the filling thread back against the woven part of cloth 
at each pick. 

249. Letting off is the gradual unwinding of the 
beam of yarn to present more and more warp to the 
action of the weaving process. 

250. Taking up is the rolling up of the woven cloth 
at a definite rate, so that a definite number of filling picks 
may be inserted per inch of cloth. 

251. The foregoing operations are done on the loom. 
The power loom at present in use is similar in all its 
movements to the primitive hand looms. 



209 

PLAIN LOOn.— FIG. 39 — I^ETTERING. 

A Yarn Beam. 

B Whip Roll. 

C Lease Rod Strap. 

D Rear Lease Rod. 

E Front Lease Rod. 

F Rear Harness.. 

G Front Harness. 

FI Reed Cap. 

J Shuttle Guard. 

K Reed. 

L Temple. 

M Breast Beam. 

N Breast Strip. 

P Sand Roll. 

Q Cloth Roll. 

R Heel of Temple. 

S Leather on Lay. 

a Crank Shaft. 

b Gear on Crank Shaft. 

d Connecting Rod. 

e Lay (sometimes called "Lathe," and "Slay.") 

f Sword. 

e Sword Rock Shaft. 

h Gear on Cam Shaft. 

j Harness Cam. 

k Cam Shaft. 

1 Front Harness Treadle. 

m Rear Harness Treadle. 

n Jack Stick. 

p Jack Hook. 

q Jack Strap. 

s Harness Roll. 



210 

PLAIN LOOM — 252. The warp on the beam, witli 
Process. harness and reed attached, is put in 

place at the back of loom. Beam is 
unwound a few turns by hand to allow harness and reeds 
to go into their proper places. 

Fig. 39 shows a loom with two harnesses. One har- 
ness is hung by leather straps to the front of harness roll, 
and the other to the back; so that when roll turns, the 
straps of one harness unwind, while those of the other 
wind up. 

Reed cap H is raised to admit reed. Reed is put in 
position on the lay, the cap is replaced and fastened down. 

Warp is pulled further through the reeds and harness 
and tied to a short piece of cloth. This cloth is passed 
around sand roll and wound on cut roll. 

Take up motion is operated by hand to wind the cloth 
tight and thus draw warp taut through the loom. 

Temples are put in place on breast beam, so that cloth, 
when woven, will pass through them and be held at its 
proper width. 

Jack sticks are hooked on the under side ol harness and 
strapped to the treadles. Front harness is strapped to 
left hand treadle and rear harness to right hand treadle. 

Treadles rest on a rod at back of loom, forming a pivot. 
Cams on cam shaft alternately raise and lower each 
treadle, thus alternately raising and lowering harnesses 
and making the shedding motion. 

When warp is being put on the loom, it is turned by 
hand to produce the sheds, so that lease-rods mav be 
inserted. The round rear lease rod D is first inserted 
when front harness is up. It is loosely held in place by a 
leather strap at each end. 

Loom is turned to make another shed with front har- 
ness down, and the flat iron lease rod E is inserted and 
fastened in the same straps. 

Picker cams are adjusted so they suddenly jerk first one 
picker stick and then the other, at exactly the right time 
to propel shuttle through warp shed. 




Fig. 39- Plain Loom— Section. 



212 

Lease rods are put in the warp for the purpose of keep- 
ing the threads better separated, and for facihtating the 
finding and piecing up of broken ends and keeping them in 
their proper places. 

253. An ordinary 40 inch sheeting loom should run 
about 160 to 170 revolutions per minute. They may be 
easily run 200, and good weavers frequently run them 
180. But the average opinion of good weavers seems to 
be that the best production is obtained on a 40 inch loom 
at about 160 to 170. Too much speed breaks too many 
threads, and causes stoppages. The most economical 
speed depends on the skill of the weaver, and on the qual- 
ity of the yarn. 

Wider looms run slower and narrower looms faster than 
the above figures. 

254. A loom is so geared that there is a stroke of one 
picker stick for each revolution of driving shaft. Hence 
the speed of loom is frequently referred to as so many 
"picks" per minute. Each pick puts one filling thread in 
the cloth. 

Fig. 40 shows the gearing and general arrangement of 
cams, &c. on one style of plain loom. 

PLAIN LOOM GEARING.— FIG. 40.— LETTERING. 

A Crank Shaft. 

B Connecting Rod. 

C Lay. 

D Gear on Crank Shaft. 

E Gear on Cam Shaft. 

F Cam Shaft. 

G Pick Cam. 

H Pick Ball. 

J Pick Shaft. 

K \\ ooden Connector. 

L Pick Stick. 

M Parallel Motion. 

N Cut Roll (or Cloth Roll.) 

P Sand Roll. 




picK qe^H 



Fig. 40. Plain Loom Gearing. 



214: 

Sand Roll Gear. 
R Pick Gear. 

S Take up Ratchet. 

255. The primary motion on a loom is the crank shaft. 

1 he driving pulley is on this shaft, and hence its move- 
ments are uniform. All adjustments in the movement 
of the various parts of the loom must be made with 
reference to crank shaft. It is called crank-shaft because 
it carries cranks, which by means of connecting rods give 
the lay a reciprocating motion to and from the breast- 
beam. The throw of crank is made to give a movement 
of 5 or 6 inches at the point where reed is carried. The 
connecting- rod is about 10 inches long, and made of 
wood. The bearings at each end, where it connects with 
crank and with pin on lay respectively, are made by bend- 
ing a piece of thin iron around crank or pin and bolting 
it through the wood, thus making a bearing with 3 sides 
iron and i side wood. Leather is often used in place of 
iron to make this connection. Leather has the advan- 
tage of allowing quick adjustment for wear, and easy 
replacement in case of damage. Its disadvantage is in 
wearing the crank by reason of catching- grit so easily 
and holding it. Perhaps the reason leather was ever 
used is that the old hand loom, in the a])sence of means 
for making and repairing iron parts, was principally con- 
nected up with leather straps. 

256. The lay is made of wood about 4 inches wide and 
5 inches high and (for a 40 inch loom) 7 feet long. It is 
supported on two wooden or iron "swords," attached to 
a rock shaft at bottom of loom, all so arranged that lay 
may have free motion, using this rock shaft as a pivot. 

On top of lay is the race plate, someumies iron and 
sometimes wood. This forms a bottom for lower shed of 
warp to rest on while shuttle is passing through. If it is 
made of good close grained wood, such as maple, which 
is not liable to splinter, it is preferable to iron. The back 
edge of race plate forms one side of a groove to hold bot- 
tom of reed. The other side is hollowed out of the lay 



215 

itself. Top of reed is held down tight by reed cap, which 
is a separate piece of wood. Reed cap is fastened to iron 
stands at each end, by thumb-screws. The iron stands 
are fastened down to lay. Reed cap carries the shuttle 
guard. Shuttle guard is an iron rod about I inch diam- 
eter attached about i^ inches in front of and parahel to 
reed cap. It serves to keep shuttle from accidentally 
flying out of place. Shuttle, in passing through warp 
shed, is thus guided on bottom by race plate, on the back 
by reed, and guarded (though not guided) on top and 
somewhat in front by shuttle guard. 

The lav, being about 7 feet long, projects about i^ feet 
beyond each end of loom. In this projection (at each 
end) is a vertical slot, through which picker stick projects 
to drive shuttle. 

257. Shuttle box is formed by a front binder of iron 
in front of slot, and a back binder behind the slot. Both 
binders are adjustable on the top of lay. Back binder is 
sometimes of wood. For some reason, all Southern 
weavers prefer iron. Back binder is pivoted at 
outer end, while inner end is kept pressed toward the 
front by a finger behind it, connected with a spring. 
When shuttle is driven into shuttle box, the back binder 
is forced open against the spring. Pressure of spring on 
binder holds shuttle and prevents a rebound. ^^ This 
movable binder is sometimes called the ''sweU." On 
some looms the swell forms front of shuttle box instead 
of back. 

On the crank shaft (sometimes on one end, and some- 
times on the other) is a gear which drives another gear of 
twice its size on the cam shaft below. Cam shaft carries 
2 cams for the 2 treadles to operate the harness. It also 
carries 2 cams to drive the picker sticks, i cam or eccen- 
tric to operate take-up motion, and i cam to operate a 
stop motion. These cams are all adjustable, and are set 
to perform their various functions with definite reference 
to position oi crank on crank shaft. 

258. Theoretically, the best time for shuttle to be 



216 

thrown through warp shed is when the lay is at its 
farthest distance from the breast beam (and feU of cloth.) 
At this point, the cranks are said to be at "back centre." 
At the time shuttle is passing through, the shed should 
be at its widest opening. Therefore the harness cams 
should be so that one harness is down at its lowest point 
when crank is at back centre. Picking cams must be set 
so that they will throw the shuttle through at time of 
greatest opening of shed. But, as shuttle requires some 
time to pass through, the pick cam must strike before 
the cranks reach back centre, in order that shuttle may be 
about half way through shed at its greatest opening. The 
loom is then said to be "picking soon." Just the proper 
amount to set pick cam before back centre, is a matter of 
judgment. If cloth is being woven to the full width of 
loom it cannot pick very soon, or shuttle might strike 
warp threads at the edge, before shed has sufificicntly 
opened. 

Since cam shaft turns only once while crank shaft turns 
twice, one pick cam may be set with reference to crank, 
then the crank shaft turned one revolution, and the cam 
set in exactly the same relation to- crank, and thus be 
opposite the first cam. 

The above applies to cams that are fastened to cam 
shaft with set screws. Owing to the hammering strain 
these cams have to stand, they are frequently fastened 
to the cam shaft by keys instead of set screws. They are 
keyed on opposite each other, and cannot be removed. 
Thus when it is required to set the cams in relation to the 
crank, the crank shaft must be lifted out of its bearings, 
and thus out of mesh with the gear on cam shaft. It may 
then be turned to proper place and then put back in gear. 
Both pick cams are thus set at once. 

Harness cams are always fastened with set screws, and 
may be set afterwards. Both harness cams are usually 
cast in one piece, so that when one is set, the other is 
also in the correct position, opposite the first. These 
cams are so constructed that the movement of the bar- 



217 

iiess is arrested for a short time when shed is widest open. 
This allows shuttle more time to get through. 

259. On account of the fact that the back harness is 
a little farther from reed than front harness, it is neces- 
sary that back harness should have a little greater move- 
ment than the front; otherwise the angles of the shed 
would not be equal. In order to make both sheds just 
alike, the right hand cam (operating back harness) has a 
greater eccentricity or throtw than the other one. This 
depresses back harness farther than front one. The straps 
on upper part of back harness are fastened to a larger 
boss on harness roll than the front harness. Hence when 
front harness is depressed by its cam, the larger boss will 
raise back harness higher than front. Thus, between the 
larger cam at bottom and the larger boss on harness roll 
at top, the back harness receives more motion, both up 
and down, than front harness. 

260. The pick cam (one of which is on each side of 
loom) transmits motion to picker stick through the 
medium of pick lever and wooden connection and lug- 
straps. The pick-lever has a roller where it comes in con- 
tact with cam, in order to reduce friction. When the 
part containing roller is raised by cam, the other end, 
carrying lug straps and connector, is drawn in thus draw- 
ing with it the picker stick. Picker stick is fastened at the 
bottom to the sword rock shaft with a parallel motion, 
so that when pick lever pulls in, the top end of picker 
stick comes in on a straight line. If it were pivoted solidly, 
the top end would describe the arc of a circle. 
Parallel motion contains a spring at the bottom which 
throws picker stick back nearly to its outermost position 
as soon as cam releases it. 

261. On upper end of picker stick is the ''picker," 
which is a block of leather fastened to stick by a "picker 
loop." The picker serv'es as a bumper for the shuttle 
when it is thrown into the box from opposite side of loom; 
and it also transmits the blow of picker stick tO' shuttle 
when it is ready to throw shuttle back. A small counter- 
sink is cut in picker just at the right place for conical end 



•218 

of shuttle to strike. This place is found by putting picker 
in place on stick and pushing shuttle by hand into shuttle 
box until it strikes picker, and marks it. 

262. Shuttle is supposed to be thrown by picker stick 
on one side of loom, say left side, into shuttle box on right 
side, with just force enough to reach picker and push the 
stick back to end of its slot, so that when the time comes 
for the right hand pick to occur, the picker will already 
be in firm contact with shuttle, and will throwit smoothly. 
If shuttle should not be thrown hard enough by left hand 
picker, and thus not quite reach the right hand picker, or 
if it should be thrown too hard, and rebound, then when 
right hand pick takes place, picker will hit shuttle like a 
hammer (instead of pushing it) and damage itself, besides 
being quite sure to throw shuttle out of place. In order 
to regulate the force with which shuttle is thrown, the 
picker cams may be moved along cam shaft in such a way 
as to give greater or less efifect to the blow. If cam is 
moved farther from side of loom, the motion of pick lever 
becomes less, and it does not act on picker stick through 
so long a period, and hence does not throw so hard. 
Moving cam toward side of loom has the contrary effect. 
The shuttle-throwing effect is universally known as the 
"power" of the loooi, (though the term is manifestly 
incorrect.) A loom is said to^ have "too' much power" on 
one side or the other when shuttle is thrown too strongly 
from that side. In that case, pick cam is slipped along 
cam shaft farther from side of loom. 

The spring behind back side or "swell" of loom box 
may also be adjusted with reference to the power of loom. 
If shuttle is thrown too strongly from left hand side and 
rebotmds from right hand picker, the swell may be tight- 
ened to check up the motion; and conversely. But the 
proper adjustment is the power. It is evident that shut- 
tle should only be thrown hard enough to reach home iri 
the other box, when swell is pressing as lightly as possible 
on shuttle. This results in less wear on all parts, and 
consumes less horse power. Other things being equal, 
the later a loom picks, the more "power" it takes. 



219 

263. A heavv shuttle requires more power than a light 
one. ' It is usual in weaving to keep two shuttles for each 
loom, so that one may be threaded up while the other is 
at work. It is necessary to have the two shuttles belong- 
ing to each loom accurately balanced, so that when the 
power of looms is adjusted for one shuttle, it will also be 
right for the other. All of one lot of shuttles is supposed 
to'be uniform in weight, but there are always slight differ- 
ences. 

in starting up new^ looms the shuttles are paired off by 
weighing: heavy with heavy, and light with light. 

264. In starting new looms, the shuttles become 
blackened bv rubbing against the new^ iron sides of shuttle 
box. When they pass through the shed, they leave black 
streaks across the cloth. Such cloth is said to be "shut- 
tle marked," and can never pass for first-class goods. The 
shuttles are hard to clean, and weavers will not take the 
trouble to do it. It should be the special and sole duty 
of one man to keep new shuttles clean for at least a week 
after starting. Each shuttle needs cleaning several times. 
It is bad practice to scrape them. A piece of waste with 
a little kerosene is the best means of keeping them clean. 

265. Shuttles are designated right or left hand, accor- 
ding to whether the eye is on right or left hand of shuttle, 
looking at it right side up wdth hinge of tongue toward 
you. There is some difference of opinion as to what 
constitutes the hand of a shuttle, but the above seems to 
be the most logical and to receive the sanction of the 
best authorities. The eye is always put on the side of 
shuttle away from that intended to run against the reed. 

The hand of a loom, is determined, as in the case of 
other machines, by standing in front, at breast beam, and 
noting whether driving pulley is on right or left. 

266. There are certain little usages in weaving, as to 
whether this or that motion shall work first from left or 
first from right, &c. Considered abstractly, most of these 
rules are immaterial, but taken all together, they form a 
necessary system for acquiring skill in weaving, and for 
producing uniform results. Such a rule is that mentioned 



320 

in (252) requiring- left hand treadle to be attached to 
front harness. Another such rule is that shuttle shall be 
placed in the loom with its hinge end toward loom pul- 
ley. Some weavers claim that this is done because shuttle 
is thrown strongest from that side of loom, and that 
therefore the heaviest end of shuttle should be on that 
side. But this is not a correct theoty. The shuttle may 
be thrown strongest from either side of loom, accordirig to 
the adjustment of picker cams, as explained in (262.) 

For the best results in weaving, the shuttle should be 
placed in the loom in such a way that the filling will come 
out of shuttle in front, that is, next to the breast beam. 
When this is done on a right hand loom, and the hinge 
end of shuttle is toward driving pulley, the eye will be on 
the left. Therefore left hand shuttles are required for 
right hand looms, and right hand shuttles for left hand 
looms. 

REEDY CLOTH. 267. Referring to Fig. 39, the line 

of warp from whip roll to breast 
beam seems to swerxe down. The height of whip roll i> 
adjustable. The height of breast beam may also be varied 
by fastening a thicker or thinner strip on the top, where 
cloth passes over. Most cloth is woven with the line of 
warp as shown, for the reason that in this position, the 
top shed of warp is slacker than the bottom, and it may be 
more evenly beaten up, giving a better "cover" to the 
cloth. 

As two warp threads pass through each dent in the 
reed (plain weaving) and in shedding, one of these is up 
while the other is down, it can be seen that if both threads, 
the one up and the one down is pulled equally taut, they 
will be held close together while reed is beating up the 
filling. But if the lower shade is pulled down harder than 
upper shade is pulled up then the lower shade will be held 
tight while the upper shade is comparatively slack. In 
this condition when the filling is beat up, the bending of 
the filling threads push the comparatively loose warp 



221 

threads in the upper shade to positions halfway between 
the taut threads of the lower shade. 

268. Two or more warp threads are drawn through 
one dent of reed, and hence the tendency in cloth is to 
have the warp threads grouped together, according to 
the way they pass through reed. Cloth with this appear- 
ance is defective, and is called "reedy," and sometimes 
"two'-ey." High whip roll and breast beam tend to 
remedy this defect. 

Other remedies for reediness are slacker warp tension, 
"sooner" shedding and moving lease rods further back 
from harness. 

269. As shown in Fig. 39, the cloth, after going over 
and around the breast beam, passes nearly around sand 
roll, and is wound up, in contact with it, on cut roll. 
Sand roll is so called because formerly it was covered with 
sand paper to make it adhere to the cloth and pull it 
along. 

The sand roll is now usually covered with perforated 
sheet steel, with edges of perforation burred up on outside 
to form rough surface. 

The sand roll is driven by a train of gears and a ratchet 
wheel which is moved one tooth at a time by a pawl 
driven from a cam or eccentric on cam shaft. This is 
called the "take up motion." One gear in the train is 
adjustable, to alter speed of sand roll. This speed deter- 
mines the number of filling threads or "picks" per inch, 
and hence this change gear is called the "pick gear". 

270. The "let off motion" sometimes consists of a 
brake of some kind on the loom beam to hold the warp 
tight and let it be unrolled by the pull of take up motion 
on cloth. A more popular method, however, is partly 
shown in Fig. 39. 

There is a short shaft at back of loom carrying a small 
pinion which gears under one of the gear heads on yarn 
beam. This pinion and shaft is turned by a worm gear, 
which is turned by a ratchet, actuated from the motion of 
one of the swords which carry the lay. At every stroke of 



222 

lay, a certain number of teeth in ratchet are moved up, and 
this gives a smaU unwinding motion to yarn beam. The 
amount of this motion may be varied to regulate tension 
of warp. 

271. In weaving ordinary cloth the tension of filling 
is not usually considered. The turns made by filling in 
coming through eye of shuttle, together with the natural 
resistance in unwinding from the bobbin, usually gives 
enough tension. In some cases, additional tension is 
made by tacking a small woolen cloth in the shuttle near 
the eye, so that the filling must drag over it in pulling out. 
For special purposes, shuttles are made with adjustable 
tensions. Sometimes the tension in a common shuttle 
becomes too great on account of the eyes becoming gum- 
med or wearing rough. The remedy is to clean it out or 
get new eyes or a new shuttle. 

STOP nOTION. 272. If fining should break or give 

out while loom is running, the loom 
should immediately stop, otherwise there would be a thin 
streak across the cloth. The filling stop motion, or "'fill- 
ing fork" is designed for this purpose. 

FILLING STOP flOTION.— FIG. 41.— LETTERING. 

A Loose Pulley. 

B Tight Pulley. 

C Belt Shifter. 

D Guide for Belt Shifter. 

E Loom Handle (broken off at top.) 

F Shifting Lever. 

G Fork Frame. 

H, J, Filling Fork on Breast Beam. 

K Filling Thread. 

L Grate on Lay. 

M Lay. 

N Cam Shaft. 

P Stop Motion Cam. 

Q, R, Oscillating Bar. 

S Spring to Shift Belt on Loose Pulley. 



224 

FILLING STOP MOTION. — Fig. 41 shows position of 
Operation. parts when loom is run- 

ning. 
Loom handle E is pulled over so that belt is on tight 
pulley. It is held in the notch in loom beam, otherwise 
the spring S would shift belt on loose pulley. 

Cam P keeps bar O oscillating. As long as the filling 
is intact in the loom, when the lay beats up it will raise 
fork J, H, in the position show^n, so that oscillating bar 
cannot catch the claw H, and loom will continue to run. 

If filling should break or run out, the heavy end H of 
fork would drop down, the bar O would catch the claw H 
and pull forw'ard the fork frame G, and through lever F, 
knock loom handle out of notch. The spring then shifts 
belt, and stops loom. 

273. Care must be taken to keep filling fork in exact 
adjustment. If one of the tines should be bent so that it 
would strike the grating, instead of passing through, the 
grating w'ould lift the fork every time, whether filling- were 
present or not, hence loom would not stop for broken fill- 
ing. The fork must not project too far through the gra- 
ting, as that W'Ould draw out more filling than is necessary 
to reach across cloth, and thus make puckers or loops of 
loose filling at the selvage. 

274. Another stop motion is for stopping loom when- 
ever shuttle, from any cause, fails to properly enter shuttle 
box. It is called "dagger stop motion" or "protector." 
The finger which is pressed by a spring against swell of 
shuttle box is connected wdth a short stiff piece of steel 
called a "dagger." 

This dagger, being attached to lay, goes forward with it 
at every beat. In a normal position it is arranged to 
knock out the loom handle at every beat. But when shut- 
tle has properly entered loom box, the swell moves out 
and changes position of dagger so that it will not strike 
loom handle. This keeps loom from running wdien shut- 
tle is not properly timed. 



225 

SHUTTLE 275. If by any accident to the 

DERANGEMENTS. dagger stop motion or otherwise 

a shuttle should be in the warp 
shed at the time when the shed is closing, the warp threads 
would be broken throughout the length of the shuttle. 
Such an accident is called a "smash." A shuttle may get 
out of time from any one of several causes. The loom 
may not have "power" enough to drive shuttle home. It 
ma}^ have too much power and drive shuttle against picker 
and rebound entirely out of box, or it may rebound so far 
that the picker cannot give it a sufficient lick for the next 
pick. The swell may be set too tight or too loose. The 
shuttle may be damp or gummy. Any part of the pick- 
ing mechanism may be broken, or deranged, such as pick 
cam, lug strap, picker stick or picker. The rivet in shut- 
tle may work out and keep shuttle from entering box. A 
screw may work up in race plate and catch shuttle. Either 
of the last two faults might cause shuttle to fly out of 
loom. Other causes for shuttles flying out might be 
improper position of picker, or trouble with the parallel 
motion at bottom of picker stick. 

AUTOMATIC LOOMS. 276. Considerable experi- 

menting has been done with 
a view to building a loom that will run continuously and 
not stop to renew the bobbin when the fifling gives out. 
One loom takes its filling from cones of yarn standing on 
the floor on each side of the loom. Another is arranged 
to automatically exchange the shuttle containing an 
empty bobbin for one containing a full bobbin. Another 
automatically throws the empty bobbin out of shuttle, and 
takes in a full bobbin. On this loom, the full bobbins are 
mounted on a skeleton cylindrical rack or magazine, con- 
venient to the bobbin-changing device. This is the 
Northrop loom, sometimes known as the "magazine 
loom." It is at present the most successful of them all, 
and is the only one of the so-called automatic looms that 
is in practical use to any extent. 



236 

2/7. Variation in design of cloth may be made by vary- 
ing the style of weave; the colors of warp; the color of 
filling; or the character or weight of materials woven; or 
by making any combinations of the foregoing. The style 
of weave is varied in the majority of cases, in connection 
with other variations. 

Plain intersections of warp and filling in regular order is 
known as "plain weave." It may be made with two har- 
nesses or with four harnesses coupled together and working 
as two. Four harnesses are used for plain weaving when 
the warp threads lie very close together, say more than 70 
per inch. The cloth weaves in this way with less chafing 
in the process of shedding. Some weavers prefer this 
arrangement even with 60 threads per inch. 

TWILLS. 278. Twill weaving is the simplest variation 
from plain weaving. It may be done with 
any number of harnesses above two. It is generally 
designated "three-leaf," "four-leaf" twill, etc., according 
to number of harnesses used. 

In plain weaving the harness cams may be placed on 
cam shaft (which, as was shown (257) revolves half as fast 
as crank shaft) because the pick cams on this shaft cause 
two picks to be made for each revolution. 

Two harness cams on this shaft will cause two sheds, 
being one shed for each pick. 

279. In twill weaving, it is still necessary to produce 
I shed for each pick. If 3 harness cams are used, each 
cam will make a shed, and it is therefore necessary to have 
the 3 cams revolve once during 3 picks, or during i^ rev- 
olutions of cam shaft. Hence harness cams must be put 
on another shaft, called the "auxiliary shaft," which shall 
revolve in proper relation to cam shaft, that is | as fast 
for three leaf twill and |- for 4 leaf work, &c. This is 
usually a short shaft, near cam shaft, and geared to it in 
the required ratio. Auxiliary shaft is sometimes supplied 
with several sets of cams with gears to correspond, so 
that a chang-e may be quickly made from 2 to 3, 4, 5 &c.. 
leaf work, when recjuired. 



227 ■ 

28o. Cam twills are sometimes described as |- |, f &c., 
meaning a twill woven with 3 harnesses up, 2 down; i up, 
4' down; 2 up, i down, &c. The mechanism in cam weav- 
ing is such that when cams are once arranged for a piece 
of cloth, say |- this cannot be changed without changing 
the cams. They may be set to raise in succession any 3 of 
5 harnesses while the remaining 2 are down, but not to 
raise 2 while 3 are down. This fact limits the possibility 
for wide variations of design in cam weaving-. 

TAPfci SELVAGE. 281. Cloth is sometimes required 
with tape selvage, which is a narrow 
stripe, say ^ inch wide, twill woven at each edge. This is 
produced by separate cams operating separate little short 
harnesses at edges of cloth. The arrangement for doing 
this work is called the "tape selvage motion." The har- 
nesses, jacks, cams, &c., for the purpose are sometimes 
called "baby harness," "baby jacks" &c. 

DOBBIES. 282. An arrangement for harness lifting to 
give a wider variation, is the "dobby head." 
This is a frame placed on top of loom, and carrying a num- 
ber of levers equal to the number of harnesses desired. 
Each lever is connected at one end to its corresponding- 
harness. The other end is arranged to be pulled up at any 
required time by an oscillating bar worked by the loom. 
A broad endless chain called the "pattern chain," deter- 
mines the order in which the oscillating bar will lift the 
harness. 

283. When the cloth has been designed, and the order 
of harness lifting determined upon, the pattern chain is 
arranged with a boss or projection on certain links corre- 
sponding with the particular harness to be lifted at any 
given moment. With a large number of harnesses and a 
long pattern chain, it is evident that an almost infinite 
variety of harness lifting may be obtained. About 40 is 
considered the maximum number of harnesses practicable 
to use on a dobby loom. Generally 12 to 20 is the number 
used. 



228 

Looms, as ordinarily built for cam weaving, have not 
harness room for more than 6 to 12 harnesses. Looms for 
dobby work should be designed with reference to the 
maximum number of harnesses desired to be used. 

284. In cam weaving, when one or more harness is 
lifted, the others are depressed so that the amount of lift 
need be only half the opening of shed. In dobby weaving, 
no harness is depressed, so that the amount of lift must be 
as great as the opening of shed. 

285. Each warp thread must be drawn through an eye 
of some one harness. If there are 400 warp threads, there 
must be 400 harness eyes in use. If it is 2 harness work, 
each harness must have 200 eyes in use. If it is 40 harness 
work, each harness must have 10 eyes in use. If it were 
possible to have 400 harnesses, each harness would need 
but one eye; and with a proper system for lifting any har- 
ness at will, the variation in harness lifting would be prac- 
tically infinite and it would be possible to weave any pat- 
tern whatever which depends upon warp threads. 

JACQUARDS. 286. Such a loom as has been described, 
having one harness for each warp thread, 
has in fact been invented, and it is called the "Jacquard." 
The order of lifting is determined by a series of needles — 
one for each thread. 

At each shed, all the needles are thrust forward toward 
corresponding holes in a square revolving shaft. When a 
needle is allowed to go far enough forward to project into 
the hole in shaft, the warp thread corresponding to this 
needle is lifted. If needle is held back it does not cause 
its warp thread to lift. The operation of these needles is 
controlled by a chain of perforated card l:ioards, which is fed 
along by the square shaft. The card boards are perforated 
according to a pre-arranged plan, corresponding to the 
pattern to be woven. The holes when cut correspond 
to the holes in the square shaft. When needles are pushed 
forward, those opposite the holes in card board pass in and 
cause their corresponding warp threads to lift, while the 
others, striking the blank places, will have no effect. This 



239 

is but a brief outline of the general principles of the 
Tacquard. It has a great variety of detail that may only 
be mastered by careful study of the machine itself. 

BOX LOOnS. 287. Changes in the color of the filling 

are made while weaving, by "box 
motions," or "drop boxes." These consist of a series of 
shuttle boxes, arranged to move up and down to bring any 
required shuttle box into working position. Each box 
contains a shuttle carrying a different kind of filling bob- 
bin. No shuttle is driven through warp shed unless it is 
in the proper working position. The moving of these 
shuttles into place, according to a pre-arranged plan, is 
done by the intervention of a "pattern chain," as described 
in (282.) 

288. Drop boxes may be arranged on one side of a 
loom, with one plain shuttle box on the other. With this 
arrangement, the filling may be varied only at alternate 
picks. There may be drop boxes on each side of loom, in 
which case the filling" ma}'^ be varied at every pick. 

Looms may be made with as many as 6 drop boxes on 
each side. If a loom is arranged with 2 boxes on one side 
and 4 on the other, it is called a "2x4 box loom." 

289. Drop boxes may be put on looms in combination 
with any of the various arrangements for harness lifting, 
such as dobbies, Jacquards, &c. 

Common ginghams and checks are mostly woven on 
plain 2 cam looms with boxes on one side only, generally 
2x1 or 4x1. Fancy carpets and tapestries are woven on 
looms having Jacquard heads, and with various arrange- 
ments of drop boxes. 

290. There are many other arrangements of looms for 
fancy weaving, embracing combinations already described, 
and involving still other principles. 

Among these may be mentioned the double warp, in 
which two separate warp beams are put in the loom, and 
arranged so that the threads of either may be made to 
predominate on the face of the cloth, at will. One form of 



330 

weaving with double warp is known as "Terry," in which 
one warp is left in loops over the surface. The Turkish 
towel is woven in this way. Velvet is woven in this way. 
Cut pile velvet is made by cutting the loops in the loom 
as fast as made. 

DESIGNING 291. In discussing the various designs 

of cloth, it is necessary to have some 
conventional method of laying out the design on paper. It 
is usual to represent designs on "point paper," such as 
shown at A, Fig-. _j2. The spaces (not the lines) running 
up and down- i, 2, 3, 4, &c., are taken to represent warp 
threads, whde those running across: a, b, c, d, &c., are 
filling threads. Marks are made in the blank checks to 
show where warp threads are to appear on the surface of 
cloth.* In the plain weave, each alternate warp thread 
appears on the surface, for each pick of filling. This is 
represented at B. 

A 3 leaf twill is shown at C. Following the lowest hor- 
izontal space across the page, which represents the first 
pick a of filling, the warp is shown at 1,2, 4. 5, 7, 8. There 
are 2 warp threads showing and i missing in regular suc- 
cession. Following the next pick, I), the warp is seenat2,3, 
5, 6, 8. This shows that the cloth is produced with ^ 
arrangement of cams, that is, 2 up and i down. 

A 3 leaf twill with ^ arrangement of cams is shown at D. 
There, the warp is seen in the first pick at 1,4, 7, and in 
the second at 2, 5. 8. The filling predominates on the 
surface of this cloth, and it is sometimes known as a "fill- 
ing twill." while that shown at C is a "warp twill." 

These terms relate to the face of the cloth. The under 
side of a filling twill cloth would be warp twill. 

292. After the cloth Is designed, it is necessary to have 
some method of showing how the warp is to be drawn in 
the harness to produce that design. This is also represen- 
ted on point paper, and is called the "drawing in draft," 

* Some designers mark the 7? //z«^ threads, instead of warp; but 
the best practice seems to favor marking the warp. 



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D 



Fig. 42. Point Paper. 



232 

and sometimes simply "draft." In plain 2 harness weave, 
and in simple twills, the drawing in is so easy and regular, 
that no draft plan is needed. Bnt in more complicated 
weaves, it is important to have it plainly indicated. 

293. It is also necessary in complicated designs to show 
the order of lifting for the harness. This is also shown on 
point paper, and is called the "lifting plan, or, in case of 
dobby looms "pegging plan." 

In sim])le weaves the drawing in draft and lifting plan 
are not laid out on point paper, but are indicated by fig- 
ures. For example, a drawing in draft marked i, 3, 5, 7, 
would mean that the first warp thread is drawn in harness 
I, the second in harness 3, the third in harness 5, the 
fourth in harness 7. The fifth thread would repeat and be 
drawn in harness i. 

A lifting plan marked 2-4, 1-6, 3-5, would mean that at 
the first pick, harness 2 and 4 are lifted, at the second pick 
I and 6, &c. 

For weaving cloth of complicated design, it is necessary 
to have 3 different plans worked out and put on paper to 
guide the operations. These are (i) The design of the 
cloth; (2) The drawing in draft; (3) The (harness) Lifting 
plan. 

294. The foregoing paragraphs are intended only as a 
bare outline of the subject of designing, to sketch out 
some of the general principles. The scope of the subject 
is infinite, involving the treatment of colors, materials 
and methods even into the field of fine arts. It extends 
into a technical comprehension of the scope and limita- 
tions of dobbies, Jacquards and other fancv looms. A 
full discussion may be found in books devoted entirely to 
this subject. 

There is but very little original designing done. Most 
of the so-called designing is but copying and adapting. 

CALCULATIONS. 295. Connected with the sul^ject 

of producing a certain kind of cloth 
of a certain weight per yard, numerous calculations are 
necessarv, such as finding the numbers of yarn to spin and 



233 

the right harness and reeds. These particular calcula- 
tons are fuhy described in the chapters on Organization, 
and on Harness and Reeds respectively. 

The principal calculations involved in the weaving of 
common cloths relate to finding the proper gear to pro- 
duce the required number of picks per inch; and conversely 
the number of picks per inch produced by a given g;ear; 
and finding the production of loom. 

Pick Gear. 296. Referring to Fig. 40 the ratchet 
gear A is driven by a pawl actuated by a 
cam or eccentric on cam shaft. At every pick of loom, it 
moves up one tooth of ratchet gear. The pick gear is 
fastened on same stud with ratchet gear and drives gear on 
end of sand roll. Assuming gear on sand roll to have 80 
teeth, pick gear 20 teeth, and ratchet 80 teeth, the num- 
ber of picks per inch of cloth may be found as follows: 
One revolution of sand roll takes up I2f inches of cloth, 
and turns ratchet wheel 80-^20=4 times. Since 
ratchet contains 80 teeth, 320 teeth must pass in 4 revolu- 
tions, and pawl must move forward 320 times. Pawl is 
driven from cam shaft and makes one forward motion for 
every 2 picks, hence there are 640 picks in I2f inches of 
cloth or about 50 picks per inch. 

297. Expressed as a formula this would be 
80 X 80 X 2 



20 X 12 



=50 



In this formula the 20 in the denominator is the pick gear. 
Treating this formula as we did similar ones where change 
gear appeared in denominator, and leaving change gear 
out, the result gives the constant, thus: 

80 X 80 X 2 

— =1004 



12 



This constant 1004 divided by pick gear will give number 
of picks per inch that the gear will put in cloth. The 
constant divided by any number of picks per inch will give 
the pick gear required. One tooth more in pick gear 



234 

gives about 2^ fewer picks per inch in cloth; one tooth less 
gives about 2^ picks more. 

298. The take up gearing shown in Fig. 40 is only one 
of several ways of arranging this motion. Some pick gears 
are arranged in the train so that the larger the pick gears, 
the more picks per inch. Some are arranged this way. 
and so geared that an increase of one tooth in pick gear 
gives an increase of 2 picks per inch. On these looms no 
constant is required. 

This is a good practical arrangement. 

Production. 299. The theoretical production of a 

loom depends upon the number of 
picks that it runs per minute, and upon the number of 
picks per inch in the cloth produced. The number of 
picks per minute multiplied by the minutes in a day, divi- 
ded by picks per inch and inches in a yard, will give the 
total number of }'ards possible to weave per day under 
these circumstances. For example, suppose a loom runs 
180 picks per minute, and weaves cloth with 50 picks per 
inch, the possible production in 1 1 hours is expressed by 
the formula: 

180 X 60 X II 

— =^66 yards. • 

50 X 36 

This is called "100 per cent production,"' or "possible pro- 
duction." An allowance must be made for stoppage. A 
good average allowance for plain work is 15 per cent, in 
which case, the looms are said to be making "85 per cent, 
production." It is possi1)le to make 90 per cent., but 80 
is more common. 

300. In cases where abnormally large per cents are 
claimed, investigation will generally show that the actual 
number of picks per inch in the cloth is less than is stated. 
Sometimes this condition is brought about by fraud on the 
part of t1ie weaver, who is paid by the piece. He might 
occasionally move up the sand roll a few teeth by hand, 
and thus cause fewer picks per inch. Sometimes it is 
1)rought about intentionally by the management of the 



235 

mill. They might have an order for cloth with 64 picks 
per inch, and so calculate the gears as to produce only 
63, or even 62-^- per inch, gaining some in the production of 
loom, and turning out a cloth so near the requirement 
that it may pass on the market. 

GENERAL DATA. 301. A common sheeting loom is 

about 42 inches wide from breast 
beam to whip roll. A 40 inch loom is about 54 inches long 
and 30 inches high to top of breast beam. The lay is about 
7 feet long. 

For a 40 inch loom running 170 picks per minute the 
usual allowance is about ^ horse power for driving. 

The driving pulleys are about 12 x 2, tight and loose, 
but may be had any size from 8 to 20 inches. They may 
have a clutch pulley instead of tight and loose pulleys. 

This loom weighs about 1,000 pounds, and costs about 
$50. Attachments for making twilled goods, such as 
auxiliary shaft, g-ears, cams, jacks, &c., cost about $10 
extra. 

Looms for producing other varieties of cloth vary so 
much in detail of construction, that it is not easy to tabu- 
late their cost, &c.,without giving detailed description. 

302. Looms may be driven from a shaft under the floor, 
or from one above. In the latter case, the shaft must be 
carefully located over the alleys, and never directly over 
the looms, on account of the Hability of oil dripping from 
the bearings on to the cloth or the warp. No matter 
what kind of bearing- or oil pan is used, some oil will drip 
on the cloth at some time, if the shaft is over the loom. 
One oil spot on a piece of cloth or on the warp will cause 
the cloth to pass as "seconds." 

Looms are generally arranged in parallel lines length- 
wise building, about as shown in Fig. 43, half of them being- 
right hand and half left hand, to throw the driving pulleys 
together. The pulley ends of loom are placed as close 
together as possible, while an alley of 16 to 18 inches is 
left between the projecting lays at the other end. The 



336 

breast beams are placed 24 to 26 inches apart, making the 
"weaver's alley." The distance between backs of looms 
is somewhat greater, generally 30 to 36 inches. This is 
the "back alley." It may be much narrower but should 
be as wide as the space will permit, to facilitate the hand- 
ling of yarn beams. Four lines are placed in one span 
between columns, as shown. The width of back alleys is 
regulated, therefore, by the width of loom, and the dis- 
tance between columns. 

The overhead driving shaft is over the middle of back 
alley. The looms are placed staggering, or zigzag, as 
shown, so that one shaft may drive two lines of looms. 

The hand of a loom is determined by standing at breast 
beam and noting whether driving puUe}^ is on right or left. 

SPECIFICATIONS. 303. The following is a sample 

blank to be filled out in ordering 
common looms: 

Width of Cloth to Weave 

Number of Looms 

Number Right Hand 

Number Left Hand 

]''or Plain or Twilled Work 

Heavy or Light Pattern 

With or Without Auxiliary Shaft 

Plow Many Cams on Aux'liary Shaft 

How Many Harness to be Up Down 

Kind of Take-up 

Kind of Let-off 

Kind of Whip Roll 

Reed Space 

Width of Loom over all, Including Yarn Beam and Full 

Cloth Roll 

Length of Loom Frame 

Length of Lay 

Size Beam Heads 

Distance Between Heads 

Number Beams (i^ per loom is usual) 




oo 



m 



j-^m 



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J-'^T 



fflO} 



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J L. 



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BACK ALLEV 



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Fig. 43. Laying out Looms. 



338 



Shuttle Binder (or Swell) to be Wood or Iron 

Cloth Roll Arranged for Long or Short Cuts 

Diameter Cloth Roll When Full 

Style and Construction of Cloth to Weave 

T hree pick Gears Furnished to make from 

to picks per inch. 

The following parts are considered to belong to the 
loom without extra charge: 
Lease Rods. 
Jack Sticks. 
Connector Blocks. 
Treadle Stirrups. 
Lease Rod Weights. 
Picker Sticks. 

Maker to send purchaser full set of samples to cover 
■'supplies" necessary to start one loom. 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 



CHAPTER XII. 

Xoom Supplies, 

304. Unlike other machines in the mill, the loom 
comes to the purchaser in what seems to be a half made 
condition. It cannot possibly rtm without the addition 
of a lot of straps and hooks and buckles &c., together with 
shuttles, reeds and harnesses, all collectively classed as 
"supplies." 

Each particular make of loom requires its own special 
kind of supplies. Each maker differs more or less from 
the others as to exactly what constitutes "supplies," as 
distinguished from the loom itself. For example, some 
makers include, as part of the loom, the lease rods, and 
some consider that lease rods properly belong to supplies. 
It is important to have these things understood in order- 
ing the looms, so that the purchaser may know what to 
expect when looms arrive, and know what supplies are to 
be ordered. The only safe way when putting in new 
looms, is to order the loom manufacturer to send a com- 
plete sample set of supplies necessary to produce the par- 
ticular kind of cloth desired. These samples may then be 
sent to the supply dealer, and there will be a fixed respon- 
sibility as to the fit of all supplies furnished. 

STRAPPING. 305. Under the head of strapping is 
included all the various pieces of leather 
or canvass about the loom, and sometimes also the neces- 
sary buckles and hooks for fastening them on. It is not 
safe to venture on ordering strapping except by sample 
to suit the particular loom and the particular goods to be 
made. Strapping is sometimes taken to include the 
pickers and picker loops. 

Most of the strapping is of leather, but lug straps and 
picker loops are sometimes made of canvass. The leather 
is sold by the pound (at 30 to 50 cents,) and the canvass 
strapping by the piece. 



240 

SHUTTLES. 306. These have been discussed in the 
chapter on weaving. Sample shuttles 
should invariably be furnished by the loom manufacturer, 
or furnished to him by the purchaser before the looms are 
made. Shuttles cost from $4.00 to $6.00 per dozen. It is 
useless to get any but the very best that can be found. 
They have to stand hard usage, both in the loom and at 
the hands of the operatives. 

TEMPLES. 307. Usually the manufacturer of temples 
can give good advice as to the special form 
of temple to use for each particular kind of cloth to be 
woven. It is a subject that has not been given sufficient 
attention except by temple manufacturers; but it is of 
great importance to have the temples not only to fit the 
loom perfectly, but to suit the cloth. 

The temple is shown in position on the loom in Fig. 39. 
The heel R should be long enough to reach well down on 
the lay, and it should be set just far enough forward to 
strike the lay, or the strip of leather on the lay at a time 
when the temple roll is about -gj inch from the reed. 

The temple should be examined to see that these adjust- 
ments are possible for the case in hand. 

A great mistake is to order temples with rolls too short. 
This is frequently done to save in the first cost, but it will 
lose in the character of cloth woven. For common sheet- 
ings and print cloths up to 28 inches wide, a roll 2 inches 
long will answer. For the same goods up to 40 inches 
wide, a roll 2-| to 2^ inches long should be used. Heavier 
or wider goods require longer rolls, or special forms of 
temples. 

REEDS. 308. Great care is necessary in making speci- 
fications for reeds. The number of dents per 
inch must be calculated for the kind of cloth to be woven. 
There can be no fixed rule for this, on account of the 
numerous conditions to be fulfilled. But the general 
principles will be discussed. 

309. Two warp ends ( in special cases 3 to 8) are usu- 



241 

ally drawn in one dent of reed. This means that there 
must be half as many dents in reed as there are ends in 
the warp yarn; or, what is the same thing, half as many 
dents per inch as there are ends per inch in the warp yarn. 
This is not the same as ends per inch in the warp of the 
woven cloth, because of the fact that the cloth is narrower 
than the sheet of warp from which it is woven. Tho 
process of weaving contracts the cloth. This contraction 
varies with the character of cloth, and the tension with 
which it is woven — both in warp and filling. It varies 
from 5 to 15 per cent. For common sheetings, a fair 
average is about 8 per cent. If sheeting is to weave 36 
inches wide, the warp yarn should be spread in the reed 
about 39 inches. Suppose the cloth is to contain 60 warp 
ends per inch. Not counting the extra ends for selvage, 
the number of warp ends in the whole width of cloth will 
be 36 X 60^2160. If 2160 ends are drawn through the 
reed, two in a dent, for a space of 39 inches, there will be 
1080 dents in 39 inches or (1080-^-39=) about 28 per inch, 
and so the reed must be ordered with 28 dents per inch. 
But it ought to be ordered longer than 39 inches, because 
the reed forms a guide for the shuttle in its passage 
through the shed, and the longer the reed, the better it 
acts as a guide. It is a very good plan to order the reed 
as long as the reed space in the loom. In addition to 
forming the guide, it allows a chance for weaving goods 
somewhat wider than that for which reed is at first 
ordered. 

The reed space is generally 6 to 7 inches longer than 
the rated size of the loom. Thus a 36 inch loom has reed, 
space 42 to 43 inches long. 

Counts. 310. In making the order for reeds, accord- 

ing to the above calculation, it might be 
specified as a 28 dent reed, 43 inches long; or as a reed 
with (28 X 43^) 1204 dents "spread" on 43 inches. The 
width of reed over all (4 U) 4-! inches) should also be speci- 
fied. It is also well to state in the specifications what 
cloth is intended to be woven with the reed. This eives 



242 

the reed maker a chance to correct any error that might 
be made by the purchaser. 

311. For the purpose of producing the cloth at (an 
inhnitesimal) smaller orl it is the practice of some mids 
to steal a few warp ends per inch, that is, weave it with 
less ends per inch than the specifications demand. 
For example, instead of weaving the cloth above men- 
tioned with 2160 ends in 36 inches, it will be calculated to 
contain say 2100, and the reed accordingly made coarser, 
say 1 1 50 spread on 43 inches. Tliis is 26.7 dents per inch, 
and is irregtilar. These fractional count reeds are called 
"l^astard reeds." But after all the calculating on reeds, if 
the weaver does not maintain uniform conditions of ten- 
sion &c., the cloth will not count as desired. It is possi- 
ble for the weaver to take warp that is drawn in 39 inches 
wide in reed, and make cloth anywhere from 34 to 38 
inches wide. 

312. Reeds should be designed with a view to ordinary 
and normal contraction in weaving, and the weaver should 
be made to maintain such conditions on the loom as will 
produce that contraction and hence the required width 
and count. 

In unusual kinds of cloth, such as is not entirely familiar 
to the weaver, it is best, when possible, to first order one 
or two sample reeds according to the best calcidations, 
and weave some of the cloth to see that it produces just 
the character of cloth desired. 

313. In ordering reeds for special cases where 3 or 
more ends are to l)e drawn in one dent, the calculations 
proceed as before, except the number of warp threads is 
divided by 3 or more, as the case may be, instead of by 2, 
as when only 2 ends were to be drawn in a dent. 

314. In England, there is no uniform way to specify 
the count of reeds. There are several methods in use in 
the various milling districts, one of which is to specify the 
number of dents in a cjuarter of an inch. In this country 
it is almost a uniform practice to specify reeds by the 
dents per inch. 



243 

BiKR. 315. Reeds are bought by the "bier/' which is 
an arbitrary term, generally meaning 20 dents, 
but not uniformly so. Some few reed makers call 19 
dents a bier. Ordinary reeds are worth about i^ cents 
per bier of 20 dents. A reed with 1200 dents would have 
60 biers and would cost about 75 cents. 

In ordering a new set of reeds, ah equipment is consid- 
ered to be about i^ reeds per loom. This allows the 
loom to be full, some to be in use at the drawing in frames,, 
and some extra. 

Specifications, 316. Following is a sample blank 

to be filled out in ordering reeds: 

Number of Reeds 

Length over all 

Width over all 

Dents per inch 

Warp Ends per inch in Cloth ; 

Kind of Cloth 

Cloth to be Full Count or Scant 

Make of Loom 

Total Number of Biers (20 dents each) 

Price Per Bier 

Price for the Whole Order 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Terms 

Remarks 

HARNESS. 317. There is more latitude allowable in 
the specifications for harness than for reeds. 
They ought to be ordered just right for each particular 
count of warp, but considerable variation from the correct 
specification may still make the cloth count right, provi- 
ded the reed is right. 

318. To prevent the chafing of warp threads in the 
act of shedding, it is customary to spread the warp on a 
wider space in the harness than in the reed. There is no 
fixed rule about this, but good average practice would be 



244 

an increase of spread of 2 or 3 per cent. Thus for weaving 
a 40 inch cloth that would be spread 43 inches in the reed, 
the warp would, for the best results, be spread on 44 inches. 
It would be possible to weave with the warp on 40 or on 
45 inches; but the former would produce some chafing- of 
the warp on itself, and the latter would strain the reed, and 
produce chafing of the warp in the reed. 



Counts. 319. If the reed has 30 dents per inch and 

has the warp drawn in on 43 inches, there 
will be (43 X 30 X 2=) 2580 warp ends. In the harness 
these 2580 ends should occupy a width of say 44 inches, and 
hence the harness eyes (in all the harnesses) will stand 
(258o-f-J4:-— ) ri!)Out 59 per inch. If there are 2 harnesses 
in the set, each harness would have about 29^ eyes per 
inch; if 3 harnesses, each harness would have about 19 2-3 
eyes per inch. 

Harness should generally be ordered as wide as the 
loom will take, even if the cloth to be woven at first should 
be narrower than the full capacity of loom. This gives an 
opportunity to use the same harness in case at some other 
time, wider goods should have to be woven. In the case 
above, the harness would be ordered about 47 inches wide, 
with eyes spaced as above. This would be (47 x 59=) 
2773 eyes in all the harnesses used in the set. 

The practice in making specifications is not uniform, 
but generally the eyes are not designated as so many per 
inch, but as spread on so many inches. In the example 
above, the most approved specification would be "2773 
eyes per set, spread on 47 inches- — 2 ( or 4 as the case may 
be) shades per set." * 



*The word "shade" in this connection means one single harness 
of the set. The same word is sometimes used in place of the word 
"shed" in weaving. The two terms are frequently used one for the 
other. But the best usage seems to justify the distinction observed in 
the text. 



V 

245 

Parts. 320. The threads in which the harness eyes 
are knit are called "healds." The wooden 
bars on which the healds are slipped, top and bottom, are 
called "shafts." In these shafts are "screw eyes" for 
hooking the harness up in the loom. The harness straps 
ha\e hooks that fasten in the eyes in top shaft; and the 
jack hooks fasten in the eyes in bottom shaft. It is 
necessary in ordering harness to send sketch showing the 
spacing of these screw eyes, both top and bottom. 

Bier. 321. The word "bier" in connection with har- 
ness is an arbitrary and somewhat indefinite 
term usually denoting 40 eyes but sometimes 38. Its use 
in this country is mostly confined to the harness makers. 
They price harness at so much per bier. The price of 
harness is usually made up in a complicated manner, con- 
sisting of so much per bier (about 2^ cents) and so much 
per inch for shafts (about i mill) and so much per screw 
eye (about i cent.) Shafts are usually ordered i to 2 
inches longer than the spread of the harness. 

322. One set of 2 shade harness with 1363 eyes per set 
spread on 44 inches, with 46 inch shafts, with 6 screw eyes 
per shade would be billed about as follows: 
I Set of 2 Shade Harness. 

34 Biers @ 2|c yj 

Shafts, 184 inches @ i mill 18 

12 Screw Eyes @ ic 12 



1.07 



246 

SPhCiFiCATiONS. 323. Following is a sample blank 

to be filled out in ordering harness: 

Number of vSets 

Shades Per Set 

Number of Eyes Per Set 

Eyes Spread On inches. 

Length of Shafts 

\Mdth of Harness Over All 

Number of Screw Eyes 

Sketch the Spacing of Screw Eyes 

Warp Ends Per Inch in Cloth 

Kind of Cloth 

Make of Loom 

Total Number of Biers 

Price per Bier 

Total Liches of Shafts 

Price Per Lich 

Total Number of Screw Eyes 

Price Per Screw Eye 

Price for Whole Order 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Terms 

Remarks 



CHAPTER XIII. 

^be (Llotb IRoom, 

324. When the cloth leaves the loom it is in rolls. As 
it was woven, it was rolled up on the cut roll until as large 
as desired, or as the loom would permit: generally 2 to 3 
cuts, but sometimes 4 to 5. The cut roll is slipped out of 
the roll of cloth and put back on the loom. A "cut" is 
the length into which the cloth is finally cut and folded 
in the piece, commonly known in the retail trade as a 
"bolt." It varies in length from 40 to 60 yards, according 
to the requirements of the trade, for that particular kind" 
of cloth. 

The rolls are taken to the cloth room, where the cloth 
is put in shape for the market. The processes in cloth 
room vary according to the kind of cloth and the market 
for which it is intended. The processes here described are 
about what ordinary Southern undyed goods should 
receive. 

SEWING HACHINE. 325. There are several varieties 

of sewing machines in use for 
sew'ing together the cloth from several rolls to make a long 
continuous piece in a larger roll for convenience at the 
succeeding- machine. Besides the actual sewing mechan- 
ism, there is generally a rolling attachment to the sewing- 
machine, for making the large roll out of the small ones, 
as fast as the ends of cloth are sewed together. Some- 
times the rolling mechanism is on another machine, for 
example, the inspecting machine. In this case the cloth 
is inspected as it slowly winds from one roll to the other. 
In its passage, it goes over a wdde smooth board, painted 
black, so that the cloth inspector may more easily see any 
defects. Sometimes the cloth, in small and badly equip- 
ped mills, is sewed by hand. About 20 cuts or 1,000 yards 
is commonly put into one roll. 

In any case it is necessary to be careful, in making the 
large rolls, to see that the edges of cloth are kept even at 



248 . 

the ends of roll. It is very easy to make A roll uneven at 
the ends. This causes unevenness in all the after pro- 
cesses, and is apt to turn out bolts of cloth at the folder 
with edges very uneven. In this case, the folds have to 
be straightened out by hand, at considerable expense, and 
are never quite so good in appearance as they would have 
'been if good even rolls had been made in the first 
instance. 

326. Such a sewing machine as described above would 
weigh about 1,500 pomids, and cost about $200. There 
are smaller and cheaper machines without cloth rollers. 
BRUSH ER. 327. There is a variety of machines and 
SHEARER. combinations of machines for cleaning and 
CALENDER. finishing cloth. Fig. 44 shows one 
machine combining all the operations con- 
sidered necessary in finishing white goods. 

By finishing, in this connection, is meant the ordinary 
processes of brushing-, shearing and calendering on "gray" 
goods. The same term is sometimes used to designate 
bleaching, starching, printing, dyeing. &c. These last 
processes are also called "converting," and goods made 
for this purpose are sometimes called "converter's goods." 
BRUSH ER, FIG. 44. — LETTERING. 
A Roll of Cloth to be Brushed. 
B Emery Rolls. 
C Beaters. 
D Cloth Spreader. 
E Card Rolls. 
F Brushes. 
G Shears. 
H Measuring Roll. 
J Vapor Cylinder. 
K Bottom Calemder. 
L Top Calender. 
M Roll of Finished Cloth. 
N Latch Bar. 

P Pressure Rack. Pinion and Brake. 
R Line of Cloth. 
S Cloth Lifting- Bar. 



250 

BRUSH ER— Process. 328. The cloth is unwound 

from the large roll A, and 
"threaded" through the machine, as shown by the solid 
line R. Each side of the cloth is operated on by one or 
more of the cleaning devices. The emery rolls consist of 
wooden cylinders covered with coarse emery grains, held 
in place by glue, or in some cases covered with fillets of 
emery cloth, tacked on. These rolls grind off the rough 
places on the cloth. 

The beaters come next. They are steel blades with 
sharp corners, which beat loose any thread ends that have 
been carelessly left in the cloth. 

The cloth next passes over a spreader, which is a bar 
with grooves running diagonally across it in such a way as 
to continually stretch the cloth from the centre toward 
each edge. This keeps the cloth smooth and free from 
wrinkles while passing through the machine. 

The card ])rushers are wooden rolls covered with fillet- 
ing of wire clothing similar to card clothing, but with 
longer teeth, set farther apart. 

The shearer is a cylinder carrying spiral blades with 
sharp corners. These blades run very close to a station- 
ary blade with sharp edge. The cloth passes over revol- 
ving cylinder and presses on stationary blade. The revol- 
ving cylinder has a traverse motion lengthwise as it 
revolves. It cuts off the loose ends of threads that have 
been beaten loose by preceding operations. This machine 
has two shearers on bottom side of cloth, and one on top. 

In front of each shearer is a lifting bar, operated by a 
handle at side of machine. When a seam in the cloth 
comes to the shearer, this handle is pulled and the lifting 
bar raises the cloth from all the shearers, and thus prevents 
the seams being caught between the 1)lades. Any care- 
lessness on the part of the operative in this respect will 
cause the seams to catch and wind up and cut to pieces a 
lot of cloth before machine can be stopped. 

The bristle brushes, one on top and the other on bottom, 



251 

are wooden cylinders filled with stiff bristles for giving a 
final brushing to the cloth. 

The cloth next passes over the measuring roll under 
another spreader and over the vapor cylinder and over 
another spreader to calender rolls, where it is wound up 
into a large smooth hard roll of cloth. 

329. Vapor cylinder is a horizontal brass tube with a 
number of fine perforations in the top. A small amount of 
steam is admitted in the tube, and sprayed out through 
the perforations on the cloth. The steam valve is connec- 
ted with-the belt shipper, so that when machine is stopped, 
steam is shut off; and when started, steam is turned on 
again. 

330. Calender rolls are heavy cast iron rolls, ground 
very smooth on the surface. They are hollow for the 
admission of steam to heat them. They are driven by 
gear at one end, and are arranged so that either the sur- 
face speed of one roll is the same as the other; or so that 
one is running faster than the other. In either case there 
is an ironing- effect on the cloth; but when one roll is 
faster than the other, there is a slipping on the cloth 
which gives it a smoother finish. But this process also 
stretches the cloth, and would in some cases be objection- 
able. 

331. Cloth roll is of wood, and has iron gudgeons in 
the end which run in the half boxes formed in the lower 
ends of pressure bars. 

■ Pressure bars slide up and down in the upright frame. 
They are controlled by the pinions working in the racks 
shown. The pinions are on a shaft carrying a brake wheel 
at one end. Brake is adjusted so that the down pressure 
on cloth roll may be adjusted to make a roll of any desired 
hardness. 

332. When cloth roll has become as large as desired, 
the latch bar N is turned down on its pivot, the pressure 
bars are run up out of the way, and cloth roll rolled out 
on top of latch bai* and removed. 

333. An exhaust fan, working in the lower part of the 
machine, draws out the dust and lint made by the vari- 



252 

oils operations, and blows it out through a pipe which may 
lead into the dust room. 

The various rolls are driven by endless belts from main 
driving shaft, passing under and over the pulleys on ends 
of rolls. These are generally 2 inch belts. Some are on 
each side of machine. 

]t will be noticed that some of the rolls run with the 
cloth and some against the cloth. It is necessary in 
starting a new machine to get full instruction from the 
manufacturer as to which direction the various rolls run. 
In the machine illustrated by Fig. 44, arrows show these 
directions. The theory of this arrangement is that the 
brushes immediately in front of the shearer blades shall 
run with the cloth and with a greater surface speed than 
cloth in order to lay the fibres forward so that shearer may 
catch them. 

The brushes immediately behind the shearers run in the 
opposite direction from the cloth in order to brush loose 
any fibres that shearers may have cut. 

334. The calender rolls are driven by a belt from a 
countershaft on the main machine. A pulley on calender 
roll drives the measuring roll. The pulley on measuring 
roll is adjustable in size, so that speed of cloth delivered 
may be adjusted to suit the speed of calenders. The 
measuring roll is generally run a little slower than calen- 
der, to ensure a tight smooth winding. 

335. Sometimes a considerable draft is introduced 
between measuring roll and calender thus stretching the 
goods as much as 8 to 10 per cent. But this much is 
injurious to the goods, and is of no advantage, as goods 
are now all sold on the basis of weight. A draft of 2 to 3 
per cent, is about right. If goods are to go direct into 
consumption, without further manipulation, the question 
of stretch, within moderate limits is immaterial. But if 
goods are to be sold to a bleachery, the trade imposes 
certain limits on stretch. A common requirement is that 
goods shall stand without damage a stretch of 4 per cent, 
at bleachery. This would not permit of much stretch in 



253 

the mill, and would entirely prohibit the use of differential 
speeds of calender rolls. 

336. If for any reason it is desirable, the calender rolls 
may be run cold, and the vapor cylinders also dispensed 
with. 

The calender rolls may be left oE the machine entirely, 
and the cloth rolled up on a device near the measuring 
roll. 

The shearing part may be left ofT entirely or the number 
of shears reduced. The same applies to all of the various 
rolls. Machines are made with simply bristle brushes or 
with brushes and beaters, and in many combinations of 
the elements shown, according to the thoroughness of the 
cleaning required. 

337. The drawing shows more operations on bottom 
side of cloth than on top side. It is intended that the 
bottom side of cloth in lIiis machine shall be the side that 
was woven up. in the loom. This is called the "thread 
side" of the cloth, and is also the "face" of the cloth. The 
broken threads and ends of filling are more numerous on 
this side than on the other, and so the machine is designed 
to do more work on that side. 

Gknerai. Data. 338. The machine shown is made 

to take cloth, up to 44 inches wide. 
It occupies a space of 6^ feet wide and 13 feet long. It 
requires about 3 horse power to operate it. It is driven 
by pulleys 14 x 3^ and should run 400 revolutions per 
minute. At this speed, it will finish about 125 yards per 
minute. It may be run 500 to 600 revolutions per minute; 
but this is too fast for good work. It may be run slower 
than 400 if desirable. 

339. The "hand" of the machine is determined by 
standing in front or at the point where cloth enters the 
machine, and noting whether pulleys are on right or left 
hand. To avoid confusion as to which might be called 
the "front." i<- i;' better, m referring to the hand, to state 
whether driving pulley is on right or left hand side when 
standing where cloth enters. 



254 

340. The price and weight of these machines vary 
greatly with the specifications. The machine shown in 
Fig. 44 weighs about 8,000 pounds, and costs about $1,000, 
Without steam calender, it would weigh about 4,000 
pounds and cost about $700. 

A machine with i beater and i brush on each side would 
cost $250 to $300. 

Specifications. 341. Following is a sample blank 

to be filled out in orderino; brush- 



ers: 



Number of Machines 

Number Right Hand 

Number Left Hand 

Widest Cloth to be Brushed 

Yards Per Minute 

Size Driving Pulley 

Speed Driving Pulley 

Driven from Above or Below 

Number of Steel Beaters: Top of Cloth. . . . Bottom. . . . 
Number of Emery Rolls: Top of Cloth .... Bottom .... 
Number of Bristle Brushes: Top of Cloth .... Bottom .... 
Number of Card Brushes: Top of Cloth. . . . Bottom. . . . 
Number of Shear Blades: Top of Cloth. . . . Bottom .... 

With Cloth Roller or Steam Calender 

If with Steam Calender 

Size of Bottom Rolls ; Top Rolls 

With or Without Differential Gears 

With or Without Vapor Cylinder 

Space Occupied: Width Length 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 

342. In some cases, cloth is sold to converters in the 
form of rolls, just as delivered by the brusher. In most 
cases, however. Southern undved goods are put up in yard 
folds. 



256 

FOLDER, FKj. 45. — Lettering. 

A Roll of Cloth. 

B Feed Roll. 

C Zinc Scray. 

D Folding Blades. 

E Crank. 

F Stationary Upper Jaw. 

G Spring for Lower Jaw 

H Jaw Rod. 

J Jaw Openers. 

K Cams. 

L Jaw Treadle. 

M Cloth, Being Folded. 

FOLDER — Process. 343. Large roll of cloth is 

taken from the brusher and put 
up on stands behind folder. Cloth is fed between two 
wooden rolls and delivered by them into the scray, which 
is a zinc trough for holding a surplus of several yards, for 
the reciprocating arms of the folding mechanism to draw 
from. 

Cloth is threaded through machine as shown. There 
is a guide on top of machine for each edge of cloth. It is 
passed through blade of folder, the treadle is pressed to 
open a jaw and receive one end of a fold. The treadle is 
fastened and machine started. 

344. The jaws on table are made to open and receive 
and hold each fold as it is delivered. The folding bar is 
operated from a pair of cranks on the crank shaft. The 
jaws on the table are opened and closed by means of cams 
on the crank shaft. 

345. The jaws hold the cloth at each end of the folds. 
The central part of cloth not being held down, will appear 
thicker. If only 40 to 60 yards are to be put up in a piece, 
this does not matter. But if "long cuts" (100 to 120 
yards) are to be folded, this puffing up in the middle of 
cloth would tend to pull it out of the jav/s. To obviate 
this, the table is sometimes made with a "drop centre.'^ 



257 

The centre of the table has a hinge m it, which allow.s the 
centre to drop a trifle below the ends, and the puffing 
effect is on the under side, instead of top side; and there, it 
does no damage. 

346. The cranks are adjustable within a small range, 
so that the length of cloth in a fold may be varied a small 
amount to suit the requirements. Ordinarily cloth is put 
up in I yard folds. Some Superintendents want to give 
^ inch short measure, and some ^ inch full measure. It 
makes but little difference in the income to the mill, how 
the measure runs, for the reason that the stated number- 
of yards in a piece must weigh a stated amount. If the 
goods made are to be 4 yards to the pound, the weight of 
yarn in the cloth must be so adjusted that what is put up 
for 4 yards (be it long or short) must weigh a pound. But 
there is a difference when it comes to the retail trade, tor 
the reason, generally speaking that no attention is paid to 
small differences in weights — a yard being a yard. Hence 
a mill must be governed, in the matter of long and short 
measure, by the requirements of the purchaser. 

For some purposes, cloth is required to be put up in i^- 
yard folds. This would require a machine made for the 
purpose. 

347. The man who runs the folder watches for the "cut 
marks" on the cloth, and stops the machine and cuts the 
cloth at the cut marks. Generally he counts the folds as 
they are being made and when the piece is cut off, marks 
the number of yards with a pencil on the piece. Some- 
times, when the machine runs very fast, he counts the 
folds after taking piece out of folder. 

348. Frequently the folder is used also as an inspecting- 
machine. This is not the best practice, but will answer 
very well for common goods if folder is run slow enough, 
say 50 yards per minute, "in a small mill, where one folder 
can do all the work required, this slow speed is not objec- 
tionable. If twice this amount is required, it is better to 
run the folder at 100 yards per minute, and get an inspec- 
ting machine. About 75 yards per minute is a good 
average speed. 



258 

349- The machine shown in Fig. 45 has what is known 
as a "low back." The back at M stands about 5 feet from 
the floor. Machines are also made with "high front," in 
which the cloth roll is put up behind the operator, and 
cloth is fed over his head. 

A 40 inch folder weighs about 1,500 pounds, and costs 
about $300. It is about 5 feet wide and 12 feet long, 
including cloth roll. 

SpKCifica-Tions. 350. Following is a sample blank 

to be filled out in ordering folders: 

Number of Machines 

Number Right Hand 

Number Left Hand 

Widest Cloth to be Folded . 

Length of Folds 

For Long or Short Cuts 

Drop Centre or Plain Table 

Low Back or High Front 

Number of Yards to Fold per Minute 

Size Driving Pulley 

Speed Driving Pulley 

Belted From Above or Below 

Space Occupied: Width Length 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 



359 

STAMPING. 351. When cloth goes from the miU to 
the bleachery, it is not stamped. When 
it is made for consumption without further treatment 
each piece is usuahy stamped. Mihs with less than 300 
to 400 looms generally stamp goods by hand. Larger 
mills have stamping machines. 

The usual hand stamping outfit consists of a. "head- 
piece," name, weight mark and yard mark. The head 
piece is some fanciful design, used as a sort of trade mark. 
The name may be the corporate name of the mill or any 
other name not already in use by some other mill. The 
weight mark is for the purpose of indicating the weight 
per yard of the cloth. It may be any arbitrary letter or 
combination of letters, as AA or LL. It may also be 
figures, as 2.85, indicating that there are 2.85 yards per 
pound. This is the simplest and best way. The yard 
mark simply shows the number of yards in the piece. 

Mills always have at least two different sets of stamps; 
one for the first quality and one for the second. If differ- 
ent kinds and weights of goods are made, different stamps 
are required. A full outfit for hand stamping in a small 
mill making only one kind of goods costs $150 to $250. A 
stamping machine alone costs $400. to $500. It may be 
arranged to use the same stamps that are designed to use 
by hand. 

The stamps are generally made of copper strips inserted 
edgewise in the face of a block of hard wood. Each 
design should be on a separate block, so that no one block 
will be too large. Most sheetings are put up in yard folds. 
The piece is folded once over itself, thus showing 18 inches 
face. For goods folded this way, none of the stamps 
should be more than 15 inches wide. 

The yard mark is usually two figures on one block, say 
40, 50, 51, 5 1 J, &c. This requires a large number of 
blocks to cover the range of variation in length; but it is 
a better way than to have single figures made on a block, 
as 4 on one block and 5^^ on another, to mark 45^^. 

The ink for stamping is distributed with a brush on the 
ink pad. The pad may be made of folds of soft cloth, but 



260 

the best pad is an iron box filled with water, with a sheet 
of rubber clamped down on the top like a cover. One 
thickness of flannel is laid on this, and the ink put on with 
a brush. The water forms a firm smooth back to the pad, 
and ensures an even distribution of ink on the stamp. 

Ink. 352. The ink is commonly blue and is made of 
ultramarine mixed with gum Arabic or some other 
gum, to give it body and make it adhere to the cloth. 
Sometimes red ink is used; but it is much harder to mix 
and use than the blue. English vermillion is the most 
common pigment for making red stamping ink. Recipe^ 
for making stamping ink may be found in the Appendix. 

BALING. 353. Goods are put up in bales of various 
kinds and sizes to suit the requirements of the 
purchaser. 

If they are baled to go to the converters, the kind and 
style of l3ale is not of great consequence, except as a mat- 
ter of uniformity. Such goods are generally in double 
cuts 100 to 120 yards, and about 20 pieces to the bale. 
Goods for domestic consumption are generally in single 
cuts, 50 to .60 yards and about 20 pieces to the bale. Col- 
ored and fancy goods are put up in various ways, according 
to the custom for any particular style. Some are baled, 
and some put up in wooden boxes or "cases." 

354. The proper way to pack any kind of goods is to lay 
the pieces on a scale, making note of the number of yards 
in each piece, until there are as many pieces as are required 
for the bale. The net weight is then noted, together with 
the total number of yards. The exact average weight per 
yard is thus found for each l^ale. This record governs the 
operations of the whole mill. It shows each day how well 
the weights and numbers are regulated throughout. ■ 

A piece of gunny cloth is laid in the press, and on this 
a piece of stout paper. The pieces of cloth are then piled 
carefully on this. Another piece of paper and another 
piece of gunny cloth are put over the top of pile and the 
press run down on it. The paper is arranged to cover 



261 



the doth, and the gunr,y cloth .s drawn smoothly over 

the bale, and the ropes tied on. 

The pressure is then relieved and the bale rolled ont and 

thihea'ds sewed up and stenc.led with a sertal number and 

any other shipping mark desn-ed. 

, , =; The sue, shape and style of bale varies according 
to whether it is intended for a foreign or domestic market. 
Almost any neat looking bale that wiUlK^ld together 
nasses muster in the domestic markets. But the require 
men ad restrictions on bales for foreign shipment a e 
ZZous and exacting. They vary --^ -^ '° j^^^ 
countries for which goods are intended. In all cases 
howev r the bale must have a certain "density" or weight 
^rcubk oot, and it must have enough ropes on ,t to hold 
Z ;1 in shape. This is about one rope I -*-;-!-- 
eter every three or four inches, or say ii ropes tor 30 inc 

goods. 

Bales for domestic markets frequently use quarter inch 
,opes 6 inches apart, or say 6 ropes for 36 mch goods. 
• ,,6 Presses may be operated by a screw, by toggle 
join s or by hydraulic pressure. Toggle joint presses ar 
the most popular ,n the South. They are made to suit 
''re mreme^ts as to size and shape of bale, a^ - °^P - 
sure recmired They are rated at so many tons pressure. 
A huX'ton press'would answer for <lo--^^ -;«;; 
a three hundred ton press would be required foi the expoit 

trade. 

It IS much better in getting a press, to get on.he^^ 
enouc^h for export work. This allows a mill greater f.ee 
, dom in disposmg of its product. A 300 ton kntidae lou t 
cloth press weighs about 10.000 pounds -^ cos s $800 o 
$900. while lighter presses may be bought for $300 

$400. 

One good cloth press should bale the goods from 300 to 
500 looms. 



362 

Specificatioms. 357. Following is a sample blank 

to be tilled out in ordering cloth 
presses: 

Kind of Press: Knuckle Joint, Screw or Hydraulic 

Tons Pressure Required 

Kind of Goods to be Baled 

Size of Finished Bale 

Density of Finished Bale 

Piling Space (Height Goods can be Piled Loose) 

Distance Between Columns Across Front 

Distance Between Column Across Side 

Floor Space Occupied by Press 

Height Over All 

Distance Between Centre of Press and Countershaft 

Height of Countershaft from Floor 

To Pack Up or Down 

Size of Packing Pulley on Countershaft 

Size of Reversing Pulley on Countershaft 

Size of Loose Pulley on Countershaft 

Speed of Countershaft 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 



CHAPTER XIV. 

preparation of l?arn for flDarF^et* 

358. In Chapter X, it was shown how yarn is treated 
after leaving the spinning frame, when it is to be woven 
into cloth in the same mill. 

Some mills spin yarn for other uses, either on the prem- 
ises or in a distant market. The preparatory treatment of 
yarn in these cases will be different according to the ulti- 
mate use for which it is intended. 

Market yarns may be classified as "single yarns" and 
"ply yarns" (English, "folded yarns.") Ply yarns are 2 
P^y.' 3 ply &c., according to the number of strands or 
"ends" that are twisted together. 

359. Twisting may be done on the mule, but in the 
South it is universally done on the ring twister. 

RING TWISTER, FIG. 46.— LETTERING. 

A Creel. 

B Spools in Creel. " 

C Guide Eye. 

D Trough (for Wet Twister.) 

E Top Roll. 

F Bottom Roll. 

G Glass Rod on Thread Board (Wet Twister.) 

H, U Ring. 

K, W Ring Rail. 

L. V Traveler. 

N Tin Cylinder. 

P Whorl on Spindle. 

R, S Spindle. 

T Thread Guide (f^ry Twister.) 

X Traverse Bar for Guide Eyes. 



264 

RING TWISTER— Process. 360. Spools of yarn 

from the spooler are put 
into ihe creel. Two strands (if for 2 ply) are drawn 
together ihiongh the guide eye and around the rolls, as 
shown, and tlirough thread guide and trayeler. They are 
attached to the bobbin, as on spinning frame. 

Bobbin and spindle are driyen by a cord band from tin 
cylinder, as on spinning frame. But it is driyen in the 
opposite direction from the original spinning, that is, not 
clockwise. 

Spindle is made with a lug or projection to fit a corre- 
sponding slot in bobbin (shown at R,) so it will carry it 
positiyely in this case, instead of by friction as in spinning. 

The bottom roll is driven from the shaft of tin cylinder 
by gearing in the head of frame. The speed of this roll is 
determined by the '"twist gear." The twisting process 
and the calculations for finding twist gear &:c., are identi- 
cal with the spinning frame. 

Ordinarily there is but one bottom roll on each side of a 
twister. The top roll is solid cast iron, weighing about 2 
pounds. It is loosely held in slotted bearings in the cap 
bars in such a way that it is held down on bottom roll by 
its OAvn w^eight. 

Some twisters are made with two bottom rolls on each 
side. In this case the top roll rests on them both. 

Wet Twist. 361. For some purposes twisted yarn is 
required to be yery smooth and free 
from "ooziness," or fuzzy ends of fibres which ordinarily 
stand out around yarn. The wet twister is used to make 
this yarn. It works the same as dry twister, but has on 
the frame a little trough of water, through which the 
strands of yarn are made to pass before being twisted. The 
passage between bottom and top rolls squeezes out the 
surplus water. On a wet twister, all of the parts coming 
in contact with the wet yarn are made of brass, or some 
metal that will not rust. Such parts are the guide eye. 
rolls, thread guide, traveler and ring holder. 




Fig. 4 6. Twister. 



366 



It would seem that the ring should also be of the same 
metal, but it wears better when of steel. Rings on dry 
twister are similar to spinning rings; but on wet twister, 
''vertical rings" are mostly used. Fig. 46 shows a twister 
with one side arranged for dry twist, with flange rings, 
same as spinning rings. The other side shows arrange- 
ment for wet twisting with vertical rings. The water 
from wet yarn runs off the vertical ring more readily than 
a flange ring. 

Twisters are not made this way in practice. The frame 
is made either for a wet twister or a dry twister. 

Fig. 47 shows the vertical ring in detail, and the pecu- 
liar shaped composition metal traveler. The ring H is 
expanded into the ring holder M. The ring holder is 
riveted to the ring rail as shown. 

The general features of a ring twister, such as weights, 
floor space, &c.. are about the same as a ring spinning 
frame. 

The cost ])er spindle is about 50 per cent. more. Gen- 




Fi^-. 47. Vertical Ring. 



267 

erally speaking i twister spindle on 2 ply will twist the 
product of 2 spinning- spindles. 

I'he speed of front roll and the production is less than 
spinning frame. See appendix for full tables, showing 
speed, twist, tXrc, for ditlerent numbers. 

Travelers. 362. The proper weight of traveler is 
cjuite as important in twisting as in spin- 
ning, though a little wider range in weights is permissible. 
As m spinning, the highest traveler permissible is the one 
tliat will sufficiently hold the ballooning in bounds, and 
also be heavy enough to break dqwn "singles" (47.) The 
heaviest allowable is one that will not break the twisted 
yarn. The proper size to select is somewhere between 
these limits, according to the judgment of the man in 
charge. The lightest permissible traveler would always 
be selected, for the sake of saving power, and avoiding 
undue stretch in yarn; but care must be taken not to allow 
too much ballooning, otherwise wdien an end breaks down, 
it might become entangled with an adjacent end and make 
a lot of 4 ply, when only 2 ply is intended. Separators are 
rarely used on twisters. 

363. The amount of twist to be put in varies with the 
purpose for which yarn is intended. The amount of twist 
per inch for each different number is usually specified by 
the purchaser, and the mill must arrange tw4st gear to 
correspond. The twist is usually 4, 5 or 6 times the 
sciuare root of the single ply number. On account of the 
heavy weight of bobbin and yarn, there is always some 
slippage of the bands, so that the spindles do not run so 
fast as calculations would show. Hence the actual twist 
is always less than the calculated. As this depends to 
some extent on the tightness of the bands and on the 
lubrication of spindle, and on other uncertain elements, 
there is no general rule for allowing for this slip. The usual 
method is to put on a twist gear with one or two teeth less 
than calculations indicate, and run a few^ bobbins and 
count the twist and make whatever alteration in twist gear 
may seem necessary to bring the average about right. It 



268 

is not easy to get it uniform, nor is it always required; 
though the average twist may l^e easily obtained. 

A "pick glass," (a small magnifying glass, such as is 
used to count the picks in cloth) is used to count the 
turns per inch. The twist in ply yarns should be counted 
in 4, 5 or 6 places and the average taken. 

364. As much as 6 ply may be made on the twister 
described. When more strands than about 6 are to he 
twisted, they are usually twisted on special machinery, 
similar to rope machinery. 

365. For special purposes, the "cable twist" is recjuired. 
This is made by twisting first 2 or 3 ply, and then twisting 
several strands of the twisted yarn. In this case the direc- 
tion of twist is reversed each time. If yarn is spun with 
right hand twist, the first twisting will l)e left hand, and 
the second right hand. 

366. The same methods of putting up yarn for the 
market may l)e followed for either single or ply yarns. The 
usual methods are: Chain Warping (or Denn warping), 
ball warping, beam warping- (rare,) reeling, cone winding, 
tube winding. 



269 

CHAIN WARPING. 367. This is the drawing together 

of a number of strands or "ends" 
of N'cirn in a compact mass, and Unking it in such a way 
that it will not tangle when shipped. This is usually done 
on a Denn Warper. 
DENN WARPER, FIG. 48.— LETTERING. 

A Creel. 

B Bobbin in Creel. 

C Eye Board. 

D, E, Rolls. 

F Lease Rod. 

G Heddle or Harness. 

H, J, Pin Leaser. 

K Measuring Roll. 

K' Top Ron. 

L Stretcher RoU. 

i\l Collecting Eye. 

N Collecting Calender. 

N' Leather Covered Top Calender. 

p Trumpet. 

O Linker. 

R Chain of Yarn Delivered. 

S Dynamo for Electric Stop Motion. 

T Electric Wires. 

U Annunciator. 

V Bell. 

W Drop Wires for Electric Stop Motion. 

Z Creel Strips. 

DENN WARPER— 368. Whether single or ply yarn is 
Process. to be warped, it is first spooled. The 

spools are put up in the creel. 

Each end is drawn from its spool and passed through its 
drop wire on the creel and through its eye in the eyeboard 

The ends are spread out in a sheet and carried over and 

under the rolls D, E. 1 u 1 11 

Alternate ends are threaded through eyes m the heddle. 
The other ends are threaded between the healds. 



270 

JTeddle is pulled down an inch or two, thus making a 
shed, in which lease rod is placed. Heddle is then returned 
to its level position. 

The ends are collected in groups of 2 to 20, (according 
to specifications for the chain that is being made) and 
threaded through the pin leaser, more fully described in 

(371-) 

Sheet is passed under and over rolls, as shown, through 
collecting eye M, where the sheet is collected into a bun- 
dle or strand and passed between the calender rolls N, N' 
:uid trumpet P to the linker, which forms links in the bun- 
dle of yarn, as it passes, and delivers it in the form of a 
cham, on the floor. A large number of ends may be drawn 
together this way without tangling. 

Lkases. 369. When an order is received at the mill 

for a chain warp, it contains certain specifica- 
tions as to number of ends, length, and leases. Leases are 
divisions of various kinds, made in the sheet of warp at 
specified intervals and fixed by having cords run through 
I hem and tied. There are "thread leases," "pin leases" 
and "bouts." 

Thread Lease. 370. The thread lease is sometimes 

known as "one and one lease," and 
sometimes as "weaver's lease." Each thread is separated, 
in the same way as by the lease rods in a loom. 

To make a thread lease on the Denn warper, stop the 
machine and pull down the heddle an inch or two. This 
deflects half the threads and makes a shed. Run a small 
cord through this shed. Push up the heddle an inch or 
two above the warp level and make another shed. Bring 
the end of the lease cord back through this shed and tie 
two ends of cord together. The heddle is returned to the 
level, and machine run a specified number of yards for the 
next lease. 

Pin Lease. 371. Fig. 49 shows the mechanism for 

producing the pin lease. In the position 

shown at the left, the warp is seen passing through the 



272 




l:(rc?r<<^^^ 




Fig. 49. Pin Leaser. 



stationary part A, in groups of 2 to 20, as required, while 
the movable part Bis turned on its pivot out of position. 
The warp thus passes through without being leased. In 
the position shown at the right, the machine has been stop- 
ped, and the movable part B turned down so that the 
forked wires catch the alternate groups of yarn and deflect 
them and make a shed. A lease cord is passed through 
the shed. The part B is raised and moved endwise on the 
pivots, and lowered again so that the forks depress the 
other set of groups. The lease cord is returned through 
the shed thus formed and tied, as in the case of the thread 
'case. ; 

372. The pin lease is sometimes known as the "beam- 
er's lease," for the reason that the beamer uses it in 
straightnening out the warp at the l^eam warper. In the 
•case of colored work, the pin lease is useful for sorting out 
colors and arranging patterns, making it easy to count out 
a uniform number of ends for each color. Pin leases are 
ordered for each warp to comprise the number of ends best 
suited to the purpose for which that warp is intended. 
They are inserted at intervals to suit the convenience or 
the ideas of the purchaser. They are frecjuently put in 
within a yard or two of each thread lease, at each end of the 
chain, and sometimes onh' at one end. 



P 

o 









Cfq 




274 

Bout. 373. For special purposes, warps are ordered 
with several pin leases gathered together in 
groups and leased with cords. This kind of a lease is 
known as a "bout." It is so rarely used that no provision 
is made for it on the machine. It is made by hand. 

Measuring Motion. 374. Fig. 50 is a top view 

of the Denn warper, showing 
the gearing. It is essential to have a device for measuring 
the warp, in order to show the proper places for cut marks, 
and also to show the total length. 

Cut marks are generally made by tying pieces of string 
around the warp at stated intervals, according to order. 

Fig. 50 shows the measuring roll K, driven from main 
shaft a by a sprocket chain. It also shows the gearing on 
main shaft that operates a bell to ring for each cut. The 
gears may be changed to make the bell ring after any 
desired number of yards. A stop motion is sometimes also 
attached to the same gearing, so that machine will stop at 
the end of warp of any required length. 

375. Fig. 51 shows the detail of this measuring motion. 
A is the driving shaft carrying a worm B which turns the 
gear C. Gear C is on a shaft carrying a gear E on its 
other end which drives the gear G and wheel H. This 
wheel carries a pin, which rings the bell at each revolution. 
y-Vll of these gears are changeable, so that a wide variation 
may be made in the speed of the wheel H. The measuring 
roll K, Fig. 50 is driven from main shaft by sprocket 
wheels with 30 and 10 teeth, so that main shaft runs 1-3 
the speed of measuring- roll. If measuring roll is 24 inches 
in circumference, it will (le]i\'er 8 inches for every revolu- 
tion of main shaft. 

376. To simplify the calculations, we shall treat the 
main shaft in Fig. 51 as a roll of 8 inches circumference. 
Consider the wheel H as the driver, and use the largest 
gears marked in Fig. 51. The number of vards delivered 
for one revolution of H will be given by the formula: 

86 X 86 X 8 
35 X I X 36 




G glTo86 



E ifjos-s 



_--'^ 



Fig. 51. Measuring Motion. 



276 



This works out 47. Any of the gears may be changed to 
alter this length, but for the sake of uniformity with the 
other formulas, we will consider the gear E as the change 
gear for ordinary purposes. This gear (35) is in the 
denominator of above formula, and hence if we leave it out, 
the result will be the constant for the machine instead of 
the number of yards as above. This would be; 
86 X 86 X 8 

— X I X 36 

and works out 1643.6. This constant divided by any num- 
ber of yards required, gives the gear to use at E. If 70 
yards are required, the gear would be (1643.6-^70=) 
about 23. 

Electric Stop 377. The Denn warper should 

Motion. always be equipped with an electric 

stop motion, similar to the one 
described in connection with the beam warper (210,) with 
the addition of an annunciator which indicates the partic- 
ular thread that is broken. As there are 1,000 to 2,000 
spools in the creel, this addition saves time in finding and 
piecing up broken ends. 

BaLtL, Warp 378. A Denn warper may have an 

Attachment. attachment for delivering ball warps. 

As the bundle of yarn emerges from the calender roll, 
instead of going to the linker, it is wound on a wooden roll 
running in bearings on the floor in front of the linker. The 
yarn is guided on this roll by a traversing eye, which causes 
the yarn to cross and recross, and wind in a hard cylinder. 
It is covered with gunny cloth, and shipped, with the 
wooden roll inside. 

Chain warps are sometimes shipped loose in sacks, but 
are mostly baled. 

379. Chain warps are sold nominally by the pound; but 
on account of the rigid limitations in the counts demanded 
by che trade, it amounts to selling by the yard. For exam- 
ple, a mill receives an order for a warp 1224 yards long, 
with 2,000 ends of number 24 single yarn. Theoretically, 



277 



the weight of th.s yarn would be expressed by the for- 

inula: 

1224x2000^^^^ 

840 X 24 
.r r^-n urr nnnt of variation m yarn, 
^"' T^tZ:L "1; thrcS Ae rnUl receives pay for 
weigh 140 P°",';. ".heretical weight. On the other 
?" •', 'fth^siun too fine and the warp weighs only 
rirdV:;- ap? to >. ^.eaed .tiref. A;™" 
?;r;rcirr^:S^.:-;rs;;ning;rnforDenn 



warps. 



r. „„., DATA ^80. A Denn warper with creel for 

about 8 feet wide by 25 feet long revolutions 

Pulleys are about 12 x 2 and run 150 to .00 le 

'"irddtvers about 33 to 44 yards per nru,ute^ 

It requires about half a day for one hand to creel 2,000 

.p::is,lnd about a day ^ -^^^^^i:^::^- ^IZ 

spools holding- I pound of yarn, tne pi 

tLefore '-about 2^000 pounds^, a d^^^^^^^^^^ J^ 

;X^r;ren.^;trgtwr;iX for that part of the wor. 

the slngllunk and the double link. The latter ts.cons.d- 

"Th'er" mav be double head machn,es as well as single 
held Tire double head ..achine has two -es -1 two 
linkers, and has double the capacity of a sni„ie 

""'t"''/^ Denn warper may be made single head, single 
hnfe"; singl^TLd, double linker; double head, smgle Im- 
ker- double head, double linker. , nnn snools 

A single head double linker machine f° |:°°°^P°* 
weighs about 3.000 pounds, and costs about $1,000, or 50 
cents per spool. 



278 

Specifications. 383. Following is a sample 

blank to be tilled out in ordering 
Denn warper: 

Number of Machines 

Double Head or Single Head 

Double Linker or Single Linker 

Num.ber Spools in Creel 

Size of Spools 

Amount of Yarn to be Warped per day 

Average Number and Ply 

With or Without Electric Stop Motion 

With or Without Annunciator 

With or Without Ball Warp Attachment 

Width Over Ah 

Length Over All 

Size of Driving Pulley 

Speed of Driving Pulley 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 

BEAM WARPING. 384. Coarse yarns are sometimes 

put on cheap homemade beams, 
with a beam warper, and sent to the market in that shape. 
These beams are built up of wood, similar in shape to reg- 
ular slasher beams. The ends are bored to receive iron 
gudgeons to use in winding. These are removed when 
beams are shipped. At their destination, other gudgeons 
are inserted, and beams are mounted in the slasher creel. 
This method of shipping yarn is not much in use, except 
where the mill is comparatively near the market, so that 
empty beams may be returned to the mill. 

REELING. 385. Fig. 52 shows a reel, winding yarn 
from bobbins into skeins. The yarn passes 
through the thread guide on the frame, and through 
thread guides on a traversing bar, which spreads the yarn 
on the arms of the "swift" as it revolves. 



279 



386. The arms of the swift are usually adjustable, so 
that the size of skein may be varied from 54 to 72 inches. 
The most common size skein is 54 inches, or i^ yards in 
circumference. The amount of yarn in a skein is usually 
the amount that comes from one bobbin, but the pur- 
chaser sometimes requires skeins of a certain weight, say 
I, i^ or 2 ounces. It costs more to furnish skeins of a 
certain uniform weight. A special stop motion may be 
had with the reel, to knock off after a certain amount of 
yarn is reeled. 

387. Such a reel as shown in Fig. 52 will take yarn 
from warp or filling or twister bobbins. The spindles, on 
which bobbins are held, are stationary, and the yarn pulls 




Fig. 52. Reel. 



280 

off over the top. This style is called "dead spindle." 
Reels are also made with "live spindles," which are suppor- 
ted in bearings, and revolve with the bobbins, as the yarn 
pulls. The yarn from live spindle reels usually pulls square 
off the bobbins from the side, to the traversing eyes, and 
does not pass through the upper eves. 

Production. 388. About half the time of the reel 

is consumed in doffing and re-creel- 
ing, so that its actual production is only about half the 
theoretical. Reels may run 150 to 200 revolutions per 
minute. At 150 revolutions, and with i^ yards circum- 
ference the theoretical production per spindle in 11 hours 
would be : 

150 X i^ X 60 X I I 

^77 =177 hanks, 

840 

and the actual production about 88 hanks. Of No. 20 
single yarn, this would be 4.4 pounds; of No. 30, it would 
be 2.9 pounds. Thus one reel spindle will take the pro- 
duct of about 12 spinning spindles, even at 150 revolu- 
tions. The production may 1)e increased in proportion by 
increasing the speed to the limit that the machine will run, 
■or that the yarn will stand without undue stretching. 

389. Reels are rarely made with more than 50 spindles, 
for the reason that the swift would be too long to run 
steadily. They may Ije made with fewer spindles, but 50 
is the usual size. This reel is about 2 feet wide and 16 feet 
long and weighs 700 pounds. 

The driving pulleys are about 12 inches in diameter, and 
made for i| inch belt. 

The dead spindle reel costs $80 to $ioo, and live spin- 
dle reel $10 extra. The hand of reel is determined by 
standing in front of the swift, and noting whether driving 
pulley is on right or left hand. 



5i81 



Specifications. 390. Following is a sample blank 



to be filled out in ordering reels: 



Number of Reels 

Number Right Hand 

Number Left Hand 

Number Spindles in Each 

Live or Dead Spindles 

Size of Swift 

With or Without Stop Motion 

Size of Driving Pulley 

Speed of Driving Pulley 

Width Over All 

Length Over All 

Send Sample Bobbin 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 



CONE AND 391. For knitting and some other 

TUBE WINDING. purposes yarn is required in 

"cones." These are made on the "cone winder," which is 
a machine with horizontal revolving cylinders or drums. 
Bobbins from the spinning frame or twister are put verti- 
cally in the creel below the drum, one bobbin for each 
winding drum. There is a mechanism for holding a con- 
ical paper tube in contact with the revolving drum. The 
yarn is attached to the tube, and winds on it by contact 
with the revolving drum. A traversing motion moves 
rapidly back and forth and guides on the yarn in crossed 
layers, thus winding a firm cone usually about 8 inches 
long and 5 inches diameter at one end and 7 inches at the 
other, weighing about 2 pounds. The same machine may 
wind the yarn in cylinders instead of cones. This is gen- 
erally called a "tube" of yarn. The cone winder may also 
be arranged to take yarn from skeins instead of from 
bobbins. 



282 

392. The machines have drums on each side, and may 
be made with any number of drums. One hundred drums 
is a common size. Such a machine is about 4 feet wide 
and 30 feet long, weighs about 6,000 pounds, and costs 
about $1,000, or $10 per drum. 

One drum will wind tiie yarn made by 15 to 20 spinning 
spindles. 

Cones are wrapped with tissue paper and packed for 
shipment in wooden "cases." 

Specifications. 393. Following is a sample blank 

to be filled out in ordering cone and 
tube winders: 

Number of Machines 

Number of Drums in Each Machine 

To Wind Cones or Tubes or Combination 

To wind From Bobbins, Cops, Swifts or Combination 

Size of Cone 

Number of Yarn 

Production Required per Drum 

Size Driving Pulley 

Speed Driving Pulley 

Width Over All 

Length Over All 

Maker 

Purchaser 

Price 

Terms 

Remarks 



CHAPTER XV. 

©raantsatton an^ Equipment 

394. The term "organization" is a somewhat ambigu- 
ous one, when relating to cotton mills. It might mean 
the arrangement and composition of a corporation. But 
the technical significance relates to the physical arrange- 
ment of machinery in proper details to make some certain 
kind of product. 

It is always desirable to lay out the organization sheet, 
in the case of a new mill, before any work is done on the 
drawings or the plant. Equally in the case of remodeling 
an old mill, or of making a considerable change in the work 
to be done by an old mill, the organization for that work 
should be carefully drawn up. 

395. Having as a starting point a certain piece of 
cloth, or a certain kind of yarn to produce, it must be 
determined what combination of machinery is necessary to 
produce the result, and in exactly what way all the drafts 
are to be distributed, from the first lap to the finished 
goods. 

The general plan of the work is somewhat empirical, 
that is, not founded on any exact rules but following 
rather the lead of experience. 

RANGE OF DRAFTS. 396. The ordinary range of 

drafts for each machine in the 
mill, has already been discussed in connection with other 
features. It is not necessary here to enter into the rea- 
sons for these ranges. It will be assumed that under ordi- 
nary conditions existing in Southern mills, the range of 



284 

drafts now in use is right. They are about as follows: 
Machine. Doublings. Drafts. 



Dappers (3 processes) 


4 


Cards 


I 


Drawing (3 processes) 


6 


Slubbing 


I 


Intermediate 


2 


Fine Roving 


2 


Spinning- 


2 


Spinning 


I 



2 


to 


6 


75 


to 


125 


4 


to 


7 


3i 


to 


5 


3i 


to 


5 


4 


to 


7 


6 


to 


15 


6 


to 


10 



The whole draft in a mill from breaker lap to spun yarn 
would be according to above table — minimum: 
2 X 2 X 2 X 75 X 4 X 4 X 4 X 3^ X 3^ X 4 X 6=1 1,289,600; 
and maximum : 

6 X 6 X 6 X 125 X 7 X 7 X 7 X 5 X 5 X 7 x 15=24,310,125,- 
000. But as there are doublings in most of the processes 
the effective draft in the whole mill would be the draft as 
above divided by the product of all the dou1)lings. In the 
minimvmi, the doul)lings are: 
4 X 4 X 4 X 6 x 6 X 6 X I X 2 x2 x 1=55,296. 
The minimum effective draft then is: 11,289,600-^55,296 
=204. In the maximum, the doublings are the same as 
above except in the case of spinning, in which there are 2 
doublings, so that the total doublings are: 2 x 55,296= 
110,592. Hence the total maximum effective draft is 
24,310,125,000^-1 10,592=219,822. 

397. Theoretically, therefore the total range of drafts 
in a mill, according to established custom is from 204 to 
219,822. On account of contraction from twist in various 
processes, this would be in practice about 170 to 170,000. 

The weight per yard of laps to start with may range 
from 8 ounces to 20 ounces. The total maximum draft 
throughout the mill would reduce an 8 ounce lap to yarn 
weighinpT-^^VTTTr ounces per vard. This weight would 
correspond to number 400 yarn. 

The total minimum draft would reduce a 20 ounce lap 
to yarn weighing j-j-q ounces per yard. This weight 
would correspond to number .16 yarn. 



385 

398. The above figures are not given as in any sense 
a guide to the actual organization of any mill, but merely 
to show the wide range of possibihties of the work. In 
ordinary Southern work the rang-e of practical require- 
ments is for yarn between number 2 and number 60, so 
that it does not become necessary to approach either of 
the extremes of lap weight, or either of the extremes of 
drafts. 

399. On numbers of yarn below 12, it is usual to omit 
the intermediate roving. 

Considerable variation in yarn numbers may be made 
by running the same roving single or double in the spin- 
ning frame, it is always best for the yarn, to use double 
roving; but for the sake of cheapness in first cost of 
machinery, and also in cost of manipulation, single roving 
is often used for common work. To illustrate the way in 
which this cheapness is brought about, suppose it is 
desired to spin number 24 on spinning frames with a max- 
imum draft of 8 for single roving or 12 for double roving 
(which is an ordinary condition.) With double roving it 
would be necessary to make (24 x 2-^12^) 4 hank roving, 
while with single roving it would be necessary to make 
only (24 X 1-^8^) 3 hank roving. It requires fewer rov- 
ing spindles to produce a given amount of 3 hank roving 
than 4 hank. Thus there is a saving- both in first cost of 
roving machinery and in the cost of operating it. But it 
must be remembered that the saving is at the expense of 
quality of goods produced. 

400. To give greater flexibility to an organization and 
to prevent the necessity for making too many sizes of rov- 
ing in a mill, single roving is sometimes allowed. This is 
especially the case in mills that weave their own yarns. 

As will be shown later, the filling is generally spun 3 to 
10 numbers finer than warp. When a mill is regularly 
running on one kind of cloth, in most cases it makes the 
same hank roving- for the filling as it does for warp; but the 
roving is put up single in the spinning frames for making- 
filling, and put up double in the frames for making warp. 



386 

SAMPLE 401. A table is given in the appen- 

ORQANIZATION. dix to show examples of the way 

organizations may be designed to 
produce certain numbers of yarn. There may be many 
variations made in the detail of the organization, and still 
produce the same yarn number. This is shown in the 
table. 

TWO PLY YARN. 402. Having shown how to 

arrange drafts &c., to produce any 
required yarn, it remains to show what yarn number is 
required for certain goods to be put on the market. If a 
certain 2 ply yarn is wanted, the proper single yarn must 
be decided upon to make it. Suppose it be required to 
make 2 ply 30s. The weight of this must be twice as much 
per yard as single 30s. If there were no contraction or 
extension of the yarn in the twisting process, it would 
simply be necessary to spin single 30s. But in twisting, 
there occurs sometimes a contraction in length, and 
sometimes an extension. In the case of number 30, there 
is a contraction of about i per cent, so that it is necessary 
to spin about number 30.3 single to twist into 2 ply 30s. 

403. The operation of twisting has a tendency to make 
the yarn shorter, as was shown in the discussion of spin- 
ning. But as the twister turns the yarn in the opposite 
direction from the first twist put in the single yarn on 
spinning frame, there is also a tendency in the twister to 
untwist the single yarn and thus lengthen it. With coarse 
yarns, up to about number 24, this lengthening by taking 
out twist in the single yarns is greater than the shortening 
made by putting in new 2 ply twist and there is "exten- 
sion." At about number 24, the two tendencies are 
equal, and for finer yarns the shortening tendency is 
greater than the lengthening, and there is "contraction." 
It is dif^cult to exactly define the amount of extension or 
contraction to allow in all cases on account of various 
degrees of twist per inch in various yarns. In practice, it 
is generally determined by trying a few bobbins in each 
-case. 



387 

404- As a general guide, to show about what the aver- 
age allowance should be the following figures are sub- 
mitted for contraction and extension. 

Numbers i to8 3 per cent, extension. 

Numbers 8 to 16 2 " " " 

Numbers 16 to 24 i " " " 

Numbers 24 No extension; no contraction. 

Numbers 24 to 30 i per cent, contraction. 

Numbers 30 to 40 2 " " " 

Numbers 40 to 50 3 " 

This means that for making yarns for 2 ply less than 24, 
the single yarn must be spun coarser than the designated 
2 ply number; number 24 must be spun about 24; num- 
bers higher than 24 must be spun finer than the designated 
numbers. 

CLOTH. 405. If it is required to produce cloth of a 
certain construction and weight, calculations 
must be made, to show the proper number of yarn to spin 
for warp and for filling, to produce this cloth. 

By "construction" of cloth is meant the number of warp 
threads per inch, (sometimes called the "sley" of the cloth, 
and sometimes expressed as so many "ends per inch;") 
and the number of filling threads per inch, generally called 
the "picks per inch." The warp is expressed first: thus a 
cloth 46 x 48 means 46 warp ends, and 48 filling picks 
per inch. 

The weight of cloth is generally expressed as so many 
yards per pound. In heavy goods, like ducks and 
denims, the weight is expressed as so many ounces per 
yard. 

406. Assuming a cloth 46 x 48, 39 inches wide, 3 yards 
per pound, what numbers of warp and of filling are 
required ? 

The calculation involves finding the number of yards of 
yarn in one yard of cloth, and finally in one pound. The 
number of yards of yarn in a pound being divided by 840, 
(the number yards of yarn in a hank) will give the hanks 



288 

per pound or "number" of yarn, if both warp and tilling 
are to be the same. If there is to be a difference, the 
above calculation gives the "average number." 

407. Disregarding, for the moment, the weight due to 
sizing and the shortening of yarn due to the filling being 
bent partly around the warp, and the warp being bent 
partly around the filling, ("contraction") the yards of yarn 
in a pound of the above cloth would be found as follows: 
As there are to be 46 warp threads per inch, there would 
be (46 X 39^) 1794 in the width of the cloth. In addi- 
tion to this there are some extra threads (from 6 to 8) put 
in each edge for selvage. If there are to be 12 extra 
threads in all, there will be (1794 + 12^ 1806 threads. 
In a yard in length of cloth, there will be 1806 yards of 
warp. As there are to be 48 filling threads per inch, in 
one yard in length of the cloth there will be (36 x 48=) 
1728 filling threads 39 inches long. 

This makes (1728 x 39-^-36=) 1872 yards. In one 
yard in length of this cloth there will be 1806 yards of 
warp and 1872 yards of filling, or 3678 yards of yarn in all. 
In one pound there will be (3678 x3=) 11034 yards or 
(11034-^840=) 13. 1 hanks. Hence, not allowing for 
contraction or sizing the average number required is 13.1. 
Expressed as a formula the yards of yarn in one yard of 
cloth would be: 

48 x 36 X 39 

46 X 39 + 12 +2 ^ ^ 

This is the same as (46 + 48) 39 + 12. and works out 
3678 as before. 

408. Hence TO FIND THE THEORETICAL 
AVERAGE NUMBER TO SPIN FOR ANY GIVEN 
CLOTH, WE HAVE THE RULE: 

ADD THE NUMBER OF WARP ENDS PER 
INCH TO THE NUMBER OF PICKS PER INCH. 
MULTIPLY BY THE WIDTH OF CLOTH. ADD 
THE NUMBER OF THREADS FOR SELVAGE. 
MULTIPLY BY THE NUMBER OF YARDS OF 
CLOTH PER POUND. DIVIDE BY 840. 



289 

But, on account of sizing and contraction, the actual 
average number to spin is somewhat higher than that 
given by the rule. The amount of allowance varies accor- 
ding to the amount of sizing put on the warp, and upon the 
construction of the cloth and upon the tightness with 
which the cloth is held in the loom while being woven. 

409. In calculating" yarn number for any given cloth, 
the particular circumstances must be considered which 
govern that particular case. Under ordinary circumstan- 
ces, such cloth as above calculated would contain about 5 
per cent, of starch and would contract in weaving about 
5 per cent., so that altogether the yarn should be about 
10 per cent, lighter than would be shown by the rule. Thus 
instead of the average number being 13.1, it would be 
about 14.4. If filling is to be lighter than warp, say 2 
numbers, then for the above cloth, we might spin number 
1 31^ warp and 1 5-I filling. 

In this example, there was 11034 yards of yarn per 
pound of cloth, which amount we divided by 840 (yards in 
I hank) to arrive at the theoretical number. We then 
added 10 per cent, to this number. Approximately the 
same result may be obtained by deducting the 10 per cent, 
from 840, dividing the yards of yarn by 756. This would 
give 14.6 as the average number. 

410. Theoretically the above way of averaging num- 
bers and dealing with per cents is not strictly correct, but 
there are so many other points involved in the problem, 
all of which are subject to variation, that it is useless in 
practice to strive for too great refinement of theory. 

411. A weaver may make several points difference in 
the weight of two pieces of cloth woven from the same 
warp and filling. This may be done by weaving with vary- 
ing tension in the warp. 

412. Manufacturers learn by experience what average 
allowance should be made for contraction in the various 
lines of goods they make. This allowance is fixed upon, 
and the weavers are made to work in such a way that the 
final weights and widths stay right. In the South, the 



290 

allowance is mostly made by adding- something to the the- 
oretical number of the yarn. In England, and to some 
extent in New England, the allowance is made in dividing 
the number of yards of yarn in a pound of cloth by some 
arbitrary number (derived from experience) less than 840. 
This gives the average actual yarn number at once. 

EQUIPMENT. 413. Having decided upon the kind 

of goods to make, and decided upon the 
organization, it remains to find the proper arrangement 
of machinery to produce the desired result. 

414. The unit of capacity for a cotton mill is the spin- 
dle. In the South, a mill is frequently alluded to as being 
a 5,000 or a 10,000 spindle mill, irrespective of whether it 
also contains looms or not. 

In working out the equipment for a mill, it is usual to 
begin with the given number of spindles and keeping the 
organization sheet in mind at all points, (i) compute 
from production tables the number of pounds of yarn that 
these spindles will deliver. (2) Find the number of fine 
roving spindles necessary to produce say 2 per cent, more 
in weight than the yarn; (3) the number of intermediate 
spindles for say 4 per cent, more than yarn; (4) the number 
of slubber spindles for 10 per cent, more than yarn; (5) the 
number of drawing deliveries for 10 per cent, more; (6) 
the cards for 15 per cent, more; and (7) the pickers for 20 
to 25 per cent. more. These allowances are for waste 
and various accidents liable to occur to the preparation 
machinery. There may, with propriety, be even more 
than the above allowances to provide for changes in the 
organization. On the other hand, the allowances might 
be diminished, with a view to finally making finer goods 
than those on which the mill is to start. This is because 
the finer the yarn, the fewer pounds can be spun, and the 
smaller the amount of carding and other preparation 
machinery required. 

415. After the equipment is determined upon for 
making the yarn, as above, tlie machines must be compu- 



291 

ted for further disposition of the yarn, whether for weav- 
ing on the premises, or for sale as yarn. If in the former 
case, the number of spoolers, warpers, slashers, looms and 
cloth room machines must be determined. If in the latter 
case, it is necessarry to determine (with the aid of produc- 
tion tables,) the number of spoolers, twisters, warpers, 
reels, cone winders, &c., according to style in which yarn 
is to be sold. 

Finally will be determined the amount of power to ope- 
rate the mill. 

416. The following example illustrates the method of 
filling out an organization sheet. It is only one of several 
ways to accomplish the result. In specifying the drafts, 
allowances have been made for waste and contraction. In 
starting a new mill, it must not be expected that the drafts 
and weights will all come exactly as shown on the sheet. 
The stock must be weighed after each process, if necessary 
and correction made in the gears to bring the weights 
right. 

Organization Sheet for Producing Sheeting 4 Yards 

per Pound ; 36 inches Wide ; 56 Warp Threads 
per Inch ; 60 Filling Threads per inch. Average 
Yarn No. 22 ; Warp No. »9 ; FillingNo. 25 . 

Finished Laps: Ounces per yd.*3 1=2; Grains per yd. 59oo 
Cards: Draft. 93-4 ; Grains per yard 60 , 

Drawing: Process 3 Draft.6; Doubling 6 ;Hank->389 

Slubbing: Draft 4-o8; Hank -55 ; Twist -85 . 

Intermediate: Draft 4-88 ; Doublings. 2.; Hank..' -so . 

TwistJ.-.37.. 
Fine Roving: Draft 5-55 . Doublings 2 ; 

Hank.3-5o ; T wist. 2-24 ; 
Warp: Draft .Vi-9 ; Doublings..2 ; 

Number. 1.9; Twist 20.7 
Fii.i,ing: Draft. 7-6 ; Doublings..!..; 

Number 25 ; Twist .i.6-3.. 



292 

417- The following example illustrates the method of 
filling out an equipment sheet for a mill to produce the 
goods according to the organization given in (416.) 

Equipment Sheet for "O'Ooo Spindle Hill to Produce 
4 yard Sheetings, as per Attached Organization. 

Production per Day of ii Hours: 37ooibs; M.Sooyds. 
Openers and Se[<f-Feeders: 2 . 
Breaker Lappers (Single Beaters) 2 . 
Intermediate Lappers (Single Beaters) 2. 
Finisher Lappers (Single Beaters) 2 . 
Revolving Top Flat Cards (40-inch). 26 . 
Drawing: ( 3 proc; 12 frames) Deliveries 72. 
Slubbing ( 4 frames; 44 Sp. each) Spindles ^7^ . 
Interm. Roving ( 4 frames; »o8 Sp. each) Spindles 432 . 
Fine Roving (»« frames ^28 gp. each) Spindles >28o. 
Spinning (48 frames; 2o8Sp. each: 22 Warp; 22 Filling, 

6 Combination) Spindles 9984 . 
Spoolers (4 Machines ^oo.Sp. each) Spindles 400 . 

Beam Warpers A. 

Slashers '.. 

Drawing In Frames 4 

Looms 320 

Sewing Machines \ 

Brushers .' 

Inspectors } 

Folders ".. 

Cloth Presses ' 

Waste Presses . V 

Stamping Machine ^one 

Band Machine .' . 

Motive Power . . . 

Shafting 



293 

BEI.TING 

Machine Shop Equipment 

Heating 

Lighting 

Peumbing 

Water Suppi^y 

Fire Protection 

MoisTERiNG Apparatus . . 
Sundries 



In effecting a reduction in weight of the lap to the 
weight of the finished yarn, it is easy to see that the total 
draft necessary from begnning to end may be distributed 
in a variety of ways, and produce the same final result. 
Just the proportion of the total draft to be assigned to 
each machine may be varied. The distribution, as set 
out in the above organization, is only one way. The 
equipment is designed to correspond with that way. 



HppcnMx* Containing tables, IRecipce anb 
Short 1Rule9/ 

The tables have been compiled from the experience of 
some of the best Southern superintendents, and are there- 
fore in accord with current Southern practice. 

Most of the production tables now current have been 
elaborately worked out to 3 or 4 places of decimals. There 
must always be an allowance for time lost in piecing up, 
doffing", &c., which allowance must be estimated, and 
which will vary according" to skill of operative. It does 
not seem consistent, therefore, to make an appearance of 
refinement in decimal places, when there are other ele- 
ments which might make differences even affecting the 
whole numbers. 

The production tables jn this volume are made with but 
few decimal points. It is hoped that they may be more 
easily used on this account. 



296 



PRODUCTION TABLE— CARD. 



DOPFER 24^ INCHES DIAMETER OVER ALL. 



Weight in Grains of Sliver. 



60 



65 



70 



Pounds in 11 Hours 



9 


6() 


75 


83 


91 


100 


108 


116 


125 


10 


74 


83 


92 


102 


111 


120 


129 


139 


11 


81 


91 


101 


112 


122 


132 


142 


153 


13 


89 


100 


110 


122 


133 


144 


155 


167 


13 


96 


108 


120 


132 


144 


156 


168 


181 


14 


104 


116 


129 


142 


155 


168 


181 


195 


16 


111 


12.5 


138 


152 


166 


180 


194 


208 


16 


118 


133 


147 


1()2 


178 


192 


207 


222 


17 


126 


141 


156 


173 


189 


204 


220 


236 


18 


133 


150 


166 


183 


200 


216 


233 


250 


19 


141 


158 


175 


193 


211 


228 


246 


264 


20 


148 


166 


184 


203 


222 


240 


259 


278 



DOFFER 271^ INCHES DIAMETER OVER ALL. 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



75 


84 


83 


93 


91 


102 


99 


112 


108 


121 


116 


1.30 


124 


140 


133 


149 


141 


158 


149 


168 


158 


177 


166 


186 



93 
103 
113 
124 
134 
144 
155 
165 
176 
186 
196 
207 



103 
114 
125 

137 
148 
160 
171 
183 
194 
205 
216 
228 



112 
124 
137 
149 
162 
174 
187 
199 
212 
224 
237 
249 



121 


131 


135 


145 


148 


160 


161 


174 


175 


189 


188 


203 


203 


218 


215 


232 


229 


247 


242 


261 


25(i 


276 


270 


290 



140 
155 
171 
186 
302 
317 
233 
348 
263 
279 
294 
310 



This table is calculated with 10 per cent, allowance. The production is based 
as usual on surface speed of doffer If there is a draft from doffer to delivery roll, 
the production will be more in proportion to such draft. See paragraph 40. 



297 



PRODUCTION TABLE— DRAWING. 



FRONT ROI.Iv lU, INCHES DIAMETER. 



Weight in Grains of Sliver. 





ft 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


65 


70 


75 




















CI 






Pounds Per Delivery in 11 Ho 


urs. 






350 


91 


102 


113 


124 


136 


147 


158 


170 


360 


94 


10(i 


118 


129 


141 


153 


165 


176 


370 


98 


110 


122 


134 


147 


159 


171 


183 


380 


101 


114 


137 


139 


153 


165 


177 


190 


390 


105 


118 


131 


144 


157 


171 


184 


197 


300 


109 


122 


136 


149 


163 


176 


190 


304 


310 


112 


126 


140 


154 


168 


182 


196 


310 


330 


116 


130 


145 


159 


174 


188 


203 


217 


330 


119 


134 


149 


164 


179 


194 


209 


224 


340 


133 


138 


154 


169 


185 


200 


215 


331 


350 


127 


143 


158 


174 


190 


206 


222 


338 


360 


130 


147 


163 


179 


195 


212 


228 


344 


370 


134 


151 


167 


184 


201 


218 


334 


351 


380 


137 


155 


172 


189 


306 


224 


341 


358 


390 


141 


159 


176 


194 


212 


229 


247 


364 


400 


145 


163 


181 


199 


217 


235 


253 


272 



This table is calculated with 20 per cent, allowance. 

The production is based as usual on surface speed of front roll. If there is a 
draft from front roll to delivery roll, the production will be more in proportion to 
such draft. 

See paragraph 60. 



298 



SLUBBINQ AND ROVINQ TABLE. 







o 
o 


J3 
o 

C 


10 inch 
Gauge 


9 inch 
Gauge 


8 inch 
Gauge 


6 inch 
Gauge 


5 inch 
Gauge 


454 inch 
Gauge 




o 


05 

=1 

tn 


U 
ft 


308 


111 1-1 

64 




a 




a 

.2 m 
= 

IS 


Pi 


a 

Is 
Ph3 




a 
2„ 

l« 




n 

2m 

p 
IS 


.30 


500. 


.45 


.54 
















.30 


333. 


.55 


.66 


351 


1 
46 


386 


43 


















.40 


350. 


.63 


.76 


330 


34 


351 


33 


















.50 


200. 


.71 


.85 


195 


36 


221 


36 


















.60 


1(57 


.77 


.93 


179 


31 


204 


33 


















.70 


143. 


.84 


1.00 


164 


17 


187 


18 


















.80 


125. 


.89 


1.07 


154 


14 


175 


15 


214 


17 














.90 


111. 


.95 


1 14 


144 


13 


163 


13 


197 


15 














1.00 


100. 


1.00 


1.20 


138 


11 


157 


13 


192 


13 


271 


14.0 










1.10 


90.9 


1.05 


1.26 






153 


11 


180 


11.8 


260 


13.0 










1.30 


83.3 


1.09 


1.31 










|175 


10.7 


250 


13.0 










1.30 


76.9 


1.14 


1.37 










163 


9.4 


240 


11.0 










1.40 


71.4 


1.18 


1.42 










158 


8 6 


330 


10.0 










1.50 


G(i.7 


1.33 


1.47 










153 


7.7 


220 


9.0 










1.60 


li3.5 


1.37 


1.53 










147 


7.0 


214 


8.3 










1.70 


58.8 


1.30 


1.56 














208 


7.7 










1.80 


55.6 


1.34 


1.61 














303 


7.1 










1.90 


53.6 


1.38 


1.66 














196 


6.6 










3.00 


50.0 


1.41 


1.70 














190 


6.3 


215 


6.5 






3.10 


47.7 


1.45 


1.74 















186 


5.7 


210 


6.1 






3.30 


45.5 


1.48 


1.78 














182 


5.3 


305 


5.8 






3.30 


43.5 


1.52 


1.83 














178 


5.0 


300 


5.5 






3.40 


41.7 


1.55 


1 86 














174 


4.8 


195 


5.3 






3.50 


40.0 


1.58 


1.90 














170 


4.6 


190 


4.9 






3.00 


33.3 


1.73 


3.08 














155 


3.6 


175 


3.9 


190 


3.9 


3.50 


38.6 


1.87 


2.24 


















165 


3.3 


175 


3.3 


4.00 


25.0 


3.00 


3.40 


















150 


3.6 


160 


3.7 


4.50 


33.2 


3.13 


3.54 


















145 


3.3 


150 


3.3 


5.00 


30.0 


3.34 


3.68 


















135 


1.9 


145 


3.0 


5.50 


18.2 


2.34 


2.81 


















130 


1.7 


14'0 


1.8 


6.00 


16.7 


3.45 


2 94 


















135 


1.5 


135 


1.6 


6.50 


15.4 


3.55 


3.06 






















130 


1.4 


7.00 


1.43 


2.65 


3.17 






















135 


1.3 



The production in this table is calculated with an allowance of 15 minutes per set. 
The twist is calculated at 1.30 times square root of the hank. 



299 



TABLE SHOWING LAYERS PER INCH ON SLUBBINQ AND 
ROVING BOBBINS. 



I,ayers per Inch 



6} 

o a" 



Layers per Inch 



H 3 



.30 


.447 


4.5 


5.4 


3.30 


1.48 


14.8 


17.8 


.30 


.548 


5.5 


6.5 


3.30 


1.51 


15.1 


18.1 


.40 


.633 


6.3 


7.6 


3.40 


1.55 


15.5 


18.6 


.50 


.703 


7.0 


8.4 


3.50 


1.58 


15.8 


19.0 


.60 


.775 


7.8 


9.3 


3.00 


1.73 


17.3 


20.8 


.70 


.837 


8.4 


10.4 


3.50 


1.87 


18.7 


22.4 


.80 


.894 


8.9 


10.7 


4.00 


3.00 


30 


24.0 


.90 


.949 


9.5 


11.4 


4.50 


3.13 


31.3 


25.4 


1.00 


1.00 


10.0 


13.0 


5.00 


2.34 


22.4 


26.9 


1.10 


1.05 


10.5 


13.6 


5.50 


3.35 


33.5 


38.3 


1.30 


1.10 


11.0 


13.3 


6.00 


3.45 


24.5 


• 29.4 


1.30 


1.14 


11.4 


13.7 


6.50 


2.55 


25.5 


30.6 


1.40 


1.18 


11.8 


14.3 


7.00 


2.65 


26.5 


31.8 


1.50 


1.33 


13.3 


14.8 


7.50 


2.74 


37.4 


32.9 


1.60 


1.27 


13.7 


15.3 


8.00 


3.83 


28.3 


34.0 


1.70 


1.30 


13.0 


15.6 


8.50 


3.92 


29.2 


35.0 


1.80 


1.34 


13.4 


16.1 


9.00 


3.00 


30.0 


36.0 


1.90 


1.38 


13.8 


16.6 


9.50 


3.08 


30.8 


37.0 


3.00 
3.10 


1.41 
1.45 


14.1 
14.5 


18.9 
17.4 


10.00 
11.00 


3.16 
3.33 


31.6 
33.2 


37.9 
39.8 



Some superintendents calcvilate the "lay" of slubbing at 10 times the square 
root of the hank; and the lay of the intermediate and fine roving- at,13 or 13 times 
square root. Some calculate 10 times square root for both slubbing and roving. 
The machine will run and give good service either way. 



300 



RING SPINNING TABLE. 





■C CD 


o 
o 

HI 


Warp 


Filling 


Warp 
or Filling 

.2 "OS 

^ Oi en 




fe 

^ 


P. 


>< 




1) 


P. 


o 


t 


t-i 


3 




3 






P..2 t' 


£-1 h-l 


&§ = 


P..N2 


o a 
> a 




a 

3 


;z; 


« 


<'io!4 


^ajH 


<tnfii 


•<mtH 


rtrtP^ 


1? 


4 


350.0 


2.00 


9.50 


21/ 


12 


6.50 


IK 




154 


3.4 


1 


5 


■200.0 


3.33 


10.63 






7.27 






154 


1.9 


5 


6 


166.7 


3.45 


11.63 






7.96 






154 


1.6 


6 


7 


143.9 


2.65 


12.56 




10 


8.60 




8 


154 


1.4 


7 


8 


135.0 


2.83 


13.43 






9.19 






152 


1.3 


8 


9 


111.1 


3.00 


14.25 






9.75 






151 


l.O 


9 


10 


100.0 


3.16 


15.03 


3 


8 


10 37 


I'A 


6 


150 


.90 


10 


11 


90.9 


3.33 


15.75 






10.78 






149 


.83 


11 


12 


83.3 


3.46 


16.45 






11.36 






148 


.73 


12 


13 


76.9 


3.60 


17.13 






11.73 






146 


.67 


13 


14 


71.4 


3.74 


17.77 




6 


12.16 




5 


144 


.61 


14 


15 


66.7 


3.87 


18.39 


m 




12.59 






142 


.56 


15 


16 


62.5 


4.00 


19.00 






13.00 






140 


.53 


16 


17 


58.8 


4.13 


19.58 




4 


13 40 






138 


.48 


17 


18 


55.5 


4.34 


20.15 






13.79 






136 


.45 


18 


19 


52.6 


4.36 


20.70 




3 


14.17 




4 


134 


.43 


19 


30 i 


50.0 


4.47 


21.24 






14.53 






132 


39 


20 


31 


47.6 


4.58 


21.76 




2 


14.89 




3 


130 


.37 


21 


33 


45.5 


4.69 


■'3 ''7 






15.24 




2 


128 


.35 


22 


33 


43.5 


4.80 


22178 


m 




15.59 




1 


136 


.33 


23 


34 


41.7 


4.90 


33.37 




1 


15.92 






124 


.31 


34 


35 


40.0 


5.00 


23.75 






16.25 


m 


2-0 


133 


.39 


35 


36 


38.5 


5.10 


34.22 






16.57 






120 


.38 


26 


37 


37.0 


5.20 


24.68 




1—0 


16.89 




3-0 


119 


.37 


27 


38 


35.7 


5.29 


35.13 






17.30 






1 118 


.36 


28 


39 


34.5 


5.39 


35.58 






17.50 




4-0 


117 


.35 


39 


30 


33.3 


5.48 


36.03 


VA 


3-0 


17.80 






116 


.34 


30 


31 


33.2 


5.57 


36.45 






18.10 


6—0 


115 


.33 


31 


33 


31.2 


5.66 


36.87 






18.38 




115 


.33 


33 


33 


30.3 


5.74 


37.29 




6-0 


18.67 


8-0 


114 


.33 


33 


34 


29.5 


5.83 


37.70 






18.95 


10—0 


114 


.31 


34 


35 


28.6 


5.91 


38.10 


i'A 




19.23 


I'X 




113 


.30 


35 


36 


27.8 


6.00 


38.50 




10-0 


19.50 


, 13-0 


112 


.19 


36 


37 


27.0 


6.08 


28.89 






19.77 


1 


111 


.18 


37 


38 


26.3 


6.16 


29.28 




12-0 


20.03 




14—0 


109 


.17 


38 


39 


25.7 


6.24 


29.66 






20.30 






107 


.17 


39 


40 


25.0 


6.32 


30.04 




15—0 


20.55 




16—0 


1 105 


.16 


40 


41 


24.4 


6.40 


30.42 






20.81 






103 


.16 


41 


43 


23.8 


6.48 


30.78 






21.06 






101 


.16 


43 


43 


23.3 


6.56 


31.14 






21.31 






99 


.15 


43 


44 


32.7 


6.63 


31.50 






31.56 






97 


.14 


44 


45 


23.3 


6.71 


31.86 




16—0 


21.80 




17—0 


95 


.14 


45 


46 


21.7 


6.78 


32.21 






22.04 






94 


.13 


46 


47 


21.3 


6.86 


32.56 






33.38 






93 


.13 


47 


48 


20.8 


6.93 


32.90 






33.53 






92 


.13 


48 


49 


20.4 


7.00 


33.35 






32.75 






91 


.13 


49 


50 


20.0 


7.07 


33.58 


IVa 


17-0 


23.98 




18—0 


91 


.13 


50 


51 


19.6 


7.14 


33.93 ; 




33.21 






90 


.11 


51 


53 


19.2 


7.31 


34.35 j 




23.44 






90 


.11 


53 


53 


18.9 


7.28 


34.58 






23.66 






89 


.11 


5? 


54 


18.5 


7.35 


34.91 






33.88 






88 


.lO 


54 


55 


18.2 


7.42 


35.33 




18—0 


24.10 




19—0 


87 


.10 


55 


56 


17.8 


7.48 


35.55 






24.33 






87 


.10 


56 


57 


17.5 


7.55 


35.86 




19-0 


24.54 




20—0 


86 


.10 


57 


58 


17.2 


7.62 


36.17 






21.75 






86 


.09 


58 


59 


16.9 


7.68 


36.49 






24.96 






85 


.09 


59 


60 


16.7 


7.75 


36.79 


\ 20-0 


35.16 






85 


.09 


60 



The production is calculated on an average of 10 per cent, allowance. 

The twist is calculated at 4.75 times the square root of the warp number, and 3.35 
times the square root of the filling number. 

The sizes of rings and travelers are inserted only to give a general idea. £,xact 
sizes must depend on circumstances. 

The front roll speeds are based on average conditions now existing in Southern 
mills. Other published tables give somewhat faster speed, especially for filling. 
But to maintain the above stardard of twist, no considerable increase in production 
may be gained by speeds above those given. See paragraph 160. 



301 



TABLE SHOWING WEIGHT IN GRAINS OF lOO STANDARD 

TRAVELERS. 



Number 


■Weight 


Number 


"Weight 


15 


420 


5-0 


65 


14 


390 


6-0 


60 


13 


360 


■J-0 


55 


13 


330 


8— O 


52 


11 


300 


9-0 


50 


10 


260 


10—0 


48 


9 


230 


11-0 


45 


8 


200 


13—0 


43 


7 


180 


13—0 


40 


6 


160 


14—0 


38 


5 


140 


15-0 


35 


4 


130 


16—0 


32 


3 


120 


17-0 


30 


a 


110 


18—0 


28 


1 


100 


19-0 


35 


1—0 


90 


20—0 


32 


3—0 


80 


31-0 


20 


3-0 


75 


33—0 


18 


4-0 


70 


33-0 


15 






34-0 


13 



302 
MULE SPINNING TABLE. 









Pounds per Spindle in 11 








Hours. 
















<u 








1-1 


X 


c 


S c 








o 


o 
















•*- S: u 










iJ ti 




V o 




3 
C 
> 


(L/J-. g 


Without 
Roller M 


•?1 




6 


6 


1.25 


1.31 




8 


6 


.94 


.99 




lO 


6 


.75 


.81 




13 


6 


.63 


.66 




14 


5.50 


.49 


.51 




IG 


5.50 


.43 


.45 




18 


5.50 


.38 


.40 




30 


5 50 


.34 


.35 




33 


5.50 


.31 


.32 




34 


5.50 


.29 


.30 




36 


5.25 


.25 


.26 




38 


5.25 


.23 


.24 




30 


5.25 


.22 


.23 




33 


5.25 


.21 


.22 




34 


5.25 


.19 


.20 




36 


5.13 


.18 


.19 




38 


5.13 


.17 


.18 




40 


5.00 


.16 


.17 




43 


5.00 


.15 


.16 




44 


4.75 


.14 


.15 




46 


4.75 


.13 


.13 




48 


4.50 


.12 


.12 




50 


4.50 


.11 


.12 



The production i.s calculated on 10 per cent, allowance. 



303 



PRODUCTION TABLE— SPOOLER. 



Pounds per spindle in 11 hours with 30 per cent, average allowance. Spindle 800 

Revolutions. 



No. Yarn 
No. Pounds 


4 

24. 


6 

15. 


8 

13. 


10 

9.4 


13 

7.9 


14 

6.6 


16 

5.9 


18 

5.3 


30 

4.7 


No. Yarn 
No. Pounds 


33 
4.4 


34 

3.9 


36 

3.6 


38 

3.4 


30 

3.1 


33 

3.9 


34 

3.8 


36 

3.6 


38 

3.5 


No. Yarn 
No. Pounds 


40 

3.3 


48 

3.3 


44 

3.1 


46 

3.0 


48 

1.9 


50 

1.9 


53 

1.8 


56 

1.7 


60 

1.6 



PRODUCTION TABLE.-WARPER. 



Pounds per machine in 11 hours for each 100 spools in creel. 18 inch cylinder run- 
ning 30 revolutions per minute, 30 per cent, allowance. 



No. Yarn 
No. Pounds 


4 

835 


6 

557 


8 

418 


lO 

334 


13 

379 


14 

339 


16 

.309 


18 

186 


30 

167 


No. Yarn 
No. Pounds 


33 
153 


34 

139 


36 

139 


38 

119 


30 

111 


33 

104 


34 

98 


36 

93 


38 

88 


No. Yai-n 
No. Pounds 


40 

84 


43 

80 


44 

76 


46 

73 


48 

70 


50 

67 


53 

64 


56 

59 


60 

55 



304 



TWISTER TABLE. 



Two Ply 



Lb. per Spindle 
in 11 Hours 



Three Ply 



Lb. per Spindle| 
in 11 Hours i 






ZW ^<Pi 



Oh >-< ' 



.2x 



H« 



v«0 



S'^o 









■5S 






3 g 



4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

lO 



120 
115 
110 
105 
100 
95 
93 



1.41 
1.58 
1.73 
1.87 
2.00 
2.13 



7.07 
7.91 
8. 66 
9.35 
10.00 
10.(51 
11.18 



5.1 

3.9 
3.1 
3.5 
3 3 

lio 

1.6 



5.6 
4.3 
3.4 

2.8 
3.3 
2.0 
1.7 



1.15 
1.39 
1.41 
1.53 
1 63 
1.73 
1.83 



0.1 1 

6.45 
7.07 
7.64 
8.16 
8.66 
9.13 



5.8 
4.6 
3.7 
3.3 

3.8 
2.4 



8.4 
6.4 
5.1 
4.3 
3.4 
3.0 
2.5 



11 
13 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
30 



31 
33 
33 
34 
36 
36 
37 
38 
39 
30 
31" 
33 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 



41 
43 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 



51 
53 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 



90 

88 
86 
85 
84 
83 
82 
81 
80 
79 



69 
69 
68 
68 
67 
67 
66 
66 
65 
64 



3.34 
2.45 
3.55 
3.64 
2.74 
2.83 
2.91 
3.00 
3.08 
3.16 



3.24 
3.33 
3.39 
3.46 
3.54 
3.61 
3.67 
3.74 
3.81 
3.87 



64 
63 
63 
63 
63 
61 
61 
60 
60 
59 



3.94 
4.00 
4.06 
4.13 
4.18 
4.35 
4.30 
4.36 
4.42 
4.47 



4.52 
4.58 
4.64 
4.69 
4.74 
4.79 
4.85 
4.90 
4.95 
5.00 



5.05 
5.10 
5.15 
5.20 
5.24 
5.29 
5.34 
5.39 
5.43 
5.48 



11.73 
12.25 
12.75 
13.23 
13.69 
14.14 
14.58 
15.00 
15.41 
15.81_ 
16.20 
16.58 
16.96 
17.32 
17.68 
18.03 
18.37 
18.71 
19.04 
19.37 



1.4 

1.3 

1.1 

1.0 
.95 
.89 
.82 
.77 
.72 
.67 



1.5 

1.3 

1.2 

1.1 

1.0 
.95 
.90 
.84 
.78 
.73 



1.91 
2.00 
2.08 
3.16 
2.24 
2.31 
2.38 
2.45 
2.53 
3.58 



9.57 
10.00 
10.41 
10.80 
11.18 
11.55 
11.90 
13.35 
13.58 
13.91 



3 1 




1.8 


3.0 


1.6 


1.9 


1.5 


1.8 


1.4 


1.7 


1.3 


1.6 


1.3 


1.5 


1.1 


1.4 


1.0 


1.3 


.95 


1.3 



19.69 
20.00 
30.31 

:M.63 
30.93 
21.31 
31.51 
21.79 
32.08 
23.36 
23.64 
33.91 
23.18 
23.45 
23.72 
23.98 
34.34 
24.49 
24.75 
25.00 



.63 
.59 
.56 
.53 

.50 
.47 
.45 
.43 
.41 
.40 



.69 
.65 
.61 
.58 
.55 
.52 
.49 
.47 
.45 
.43 



.39 
.37 
.35 
.33 
.33 
.31 
.30 
.29 
.28 
.27 



.26 


.29 


.25 


.28 


.34 


.27 


.33 


.26 


.23 


.25 


22 


.34 


.32 


.23 


.21 


.33 


.21 


33 


.20 


.33 



3.65 
3.71 
3.77 
3.83 
3.89 
3.94 
3.00 
3.06 
3.11 
3.16 
3.31 
3.27 
3.32 
3.37 
3.42 
3.46 
3.51 
3.56 
3.61 
3.65 



13.23 

13.54 

13.84 

14.14 

14.43 

14.73 

15.00 

15.38 

15.55 

_15.81_ 

16.07 

16.33 

16.58 

16.83 

17.08 

17.33 

17.56 

17.80 

18.03 

18.36 



.91 


1.1 


.87 


1.0 


.83 


.93 


.79 


.87 


.75 


.83 


.73 


.78 


.69 


.74 


.66 


.70 


.63 


.67 


1 .60 


.64 



11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
_20_ 
21 
22 
33 
34 
35 
36 
27 
28 



35.35 
35.50 
25.74 
25.98 
26.23 
36.46 
36.69 
36.93 
37.16 
27.39 



.30 
.19 
.19 
.18 
.17 
.17 
.16 
.16 
.15 
.15 



.21 
.31 
.30 
.20 
.19 
.19 
.18 
.18 
.17 
.17 



3.70 
3.74 
3.79 
3.83 
3.87 
3.92 
3.96 
4.00 
4.04 
_4J)8_ 
4.13 
4.16 
4.30 
4.34 
4.38 
4.33 
4.36 
4.40 
4.43 
4.47 



18.48 
18.71 
18.93 
19.15 
19.36 
19.58 
19.79 
30.00 
20.21 
30.41 



.57 
.54 
.53 
.50 
.48 
.46 
.44 
.43 
.41 
.40 



.61 
.58 
.55 
.53 
.51 
.49 
.48 
.47 
.46 
.45 



20.62 
20.83 
31.02 
21.21 
21.41 
21.60 
21.79 
21.98 
22.17 
23.36 



.29 
.28 
.27 
.26 
.35 
.34 
.24 
.23 
.33 
.33 



.43 
.42 
.41 
39 
.38 
.36 
.35 
.33 
.33 
.31 



.27 
.27 
.36 
.36 



31 
33 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
43 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
53 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 



The production is calculated on 10 per cent allowance. 

The twist is calculated at 5 times the square root oi the twisted number; (that is, 
1/2 square root of single ply number for 2 ply, and V3 for 3 ply). This is an average 
requirement. 

Some yarn is required with less, and some with more twist. 

The roll speeds are averages now in use for Southern work. Unless speed of 
driving pully is changed, every change of twist alters speed of roll. There is con- 
siderable latitude allowable in this respect, depending upon .skill ot operative, and 
character of stock. 



305 



PRODUCTION TABLE. 54 INCH REEL— SINGLE PLY. 



Pounds per Spindle in 11 Hours. Fifty per cent, allowance. 



6 
-12; 
a 

u 


REVOLUTIONS 


6 

a 

> 

38 


REVOLUTIONS 


> 


150 


160 


170 


180 


190 


300 


150 

"3.2 


160 


170 


180 


190 


300 


4 


22. 


23. 


25. 


26. 


28. 


30. 


3.3 


3.5 


3.6 


3.8 


4.1 




17. 


19. 


20. 


21. 


23. 


24. 


39 


3.1 


3.2 


3.4 


3.5 


3.7 


4.0 


6 


14. 
12. 


16. 
13. 


17. 
14. 


18. 
15. 


19. 
16. 


20. 
17. 


30 
31 


3.0 


3.1 


3.3 


3.4 


3.6 


3.9 


7 


2.9 


3.0 


3.2 


3.3 


3.5 


3 8 


8 


11. 


12. 


12. 


13. 


14. 


15. 


33 


2.8 


2.9 


3.1 


3.2 


3.4 


3.7 


9 


10. 


11. 


11. 


12. 


12. 


13. 


33 




2.8 


3.0 


3.1 


3.3 


3 (i 


10 


9. 


10. 


10. 
9.1 


11. 


11. 


12. 


34 
35 


2.6 
2.5 


3.7 
2.6 


2.9 

2.8 


3.0 
3.9 


3.3 
3.1 


3.5 


n 


8. 


8.5 


9.7 


10. 


11. 


3.4 


13 


7.4 


7.8 


8.3 


8.9 


9.3 


10. 


36 


2.4 


2.5 


2.7 


2.8 


3.0 


3.3 


13 


6.8 


7.2 


7.7 


8.2 


8.7 


9.1 


37 


2.4 


2.5 


2.6 


2.7 


3.9 


3.3 


14 


6.3 


6.7 


7.2 


7.7 


8.2 


8.6 


38 


2.3 


2.4 


2.6 


3.7 


2.8 


3.1 


15 


5.9 


fi.3 


6.8 


7.3 


7.7 


8.2 


39 


2.3 


2.4 


2.5 


2.6 


2.7 


3.0 


16 


5.5 
5.2 


5.9 
5.5 


6.4 
5.9 


6.9 
6.3 


7.3 
6.8 


7.8 
7.3 


40 


2.2 


2.3 


2.5 


3.6 


2.7 


3.9 


17 


41 


2 2 


2 3 


2.4 


3.5 


3.6 


=> 8 


18 


4.9 


5.2 


5.6 


5.9 


6.3 


6.8 


43 


2 1 


2.2 


3.4 


3.5 


2.6 


9, 8 


19 


4 6 


4.9 


5 3 


5.6 


5.8 


6.3 


43 


2 1 


O 9 


2 3 


3.4 


2.6 


^ 7 


30 


1 4.4 


4.7 


5.0 


5.3 


5.5 


5.9 


44 
45 


2.0 
2.0 


2.1 
2.1 


2.3 
3.2 


3.4 
3.3 


2.6 
2.5 


3.7 


31 


4.2 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.2 


5.6 


3.6 


33 


4.0 


4.3 


4.6 


4.8 


5.0 


5.3 


46 


1.9 


2.0 


3 3 


2.3 


2.5 


3.5 


33 


3.8 


4.1 


4.4 


4.6 


4.8 


5.1 


47 


1.9 


2.0 


2.1 


2.3 


2.4 


3.4 


34 


3.7 


3.9 


4.2 


4.4 


4.6 


4.9 


48 


1.9 


2.0 


2.1. 


3.3 


3.3 


3.4 


35 


3.5 


3.7 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.7 


49 


1.8 


1.9 


2.0 


2.2 


2.3 


2.4 


3B 


3 4 


3 6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.5 


50 


1.8 


1.9 


2.0 


3.1 


2.2 


2.3 


37 


3.3 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.3 

















TABLE OF BREAKING STRENGTH OF RING SPUN WARP YARN. 



Pounds to Break one Skein of 120 Yards. 


Yarn No. 
Single 
2 Ply 


4 

400 
900 


5 

350 
800 


6 

300 
650 


250 
550 


8 

220 
500 


9 

200 
450 


10 

180 
400 


11 

160 
350 


13 

140 
300 


13 

130 

280 


Yarn No. 
Single 
2 Ply 


14 

130 
260 


15 

115 
.250 


16 

110 
240 


17 

105 
230 


18 

100 
330 


19 

95 
210 


30 

90 
200 


31 

85 
190 


33 

80 

180 


33 

75 
175 


Yarn No. 
Single 
2 Ply 


34 

72 
170 


35 

69 
165 


36 

66 
158 


37 

63 

151 


38 

61 
146 


39 

59 
141 


30 

57 
137 


31 

55 
133 


33 

53 
129 


33 

52 
125 


Yarn No. 
Single 
2 Ply 


34 

51 
122 


35 

50 
119 


36 

49 
116 


37 

48 
113 


38 

47 
110 


39 

46 
108 


40 

45 
106 


41 

44 
104 


43 

43 
102 


43 

42 
100 


Yarn No. 
Single 

2 Ply 


44 

41 

98 


45 

40 
96 


46 

40 
94 


47 
39 
93 


48 

31 
91 


49 

38 
90 


50 

37 

89 


53 

36 

• 87 


54 

35 

85 


611 

33 
79 



Breaking strengths vary according to character of cotton from which yarn is 
made. They vary according to twist put in yarn. They appear to vary according 
to the way in which the testing machine is used. 

The above strengths are about the average for the kind of cotton used to make 
the designated numbers. 



306 









SOME PRACTICAL ORQANIZATIONS. 

( 










u 
o 

S 

o 


Ca 


rd 


Draw- ! 
ing 


SI 


abbing 


Interme- 
diate 
Roving 


Fine 
Roving 


Spinning 


J3 


































l-r 

as 


p. 

c8 








be 






bfl 






bo 






bo 




Q, 


bt 




> 


►4 








c 






a 






a 






B 




I-. 


a 


u 


o 


o 


4J 




^ 


3 


fc.S 


^ 


3 


M 


^ 


3 


M 


^ 


3 


rt 

^ ii^ 


3 








CS 


> cd 


a 


3 


> a 


"3 


3 


a 


'3 


3 


a 


nl 


3 


S d 


3 


s 


O 




u 


3 1-1 


1^ 





S '-' 


u 





ca 


IH 


O 


ni 


IH 


O 


n! 


»- *-• 


O 




1? 


20 



92 


90 



6 



6 


90 


R 
4.4 


P 


W 
.40 


j Q 


W 




5.2 


Q 
2 


w 


0^ 


Q 


^ 


4 






1.0 


8.3 


^ 


4 


6 


20 


92 


90 


6 


6 


90 


4.4 




.40 








5.2 


2 


1.0 


12.4 


2 


6 


X 


20 


104 


80 


6 


6 


80 


4.0 




.40 








5.2 


3 1.0 


16.6 


2 


8 


10 


20 


104 


80 


6 


6 


80 


4.5 




.45 








5.9 


2 1.3i 16.6 


2 


10 


13 


18 


106 


70 


6 


6 


70 


5.2 




.60 




1 ! 


6.9 


2 


2.0 


12.6 


2 


13 


14 


18 1 


106 


70 


6, 6 


70 1 


4.3 




.50J 


4.1 2 


1.0 


5.3 


2 


2.5 


13.0 


2 


14 


16 


16 


95 


70 


6 


6 


70 


4.3 




.50 


4.1 


2 


1.0 


5.2 


2 


3.5 


14.0 


2 


16 


18 


16 


95 


70 


6 


6 


70 


4.3 




.50 


4.1 


3 


1.0 


6.3 


. 2 


3.0 


13.0 


2 


18 


30 


16 


95 


70 


6 


6 


70 


4.3 




.50 


4.1 


2 


1.0 


6.2 




3.0 


14.5 


2 


20 


8«> 


14 


83 


70 


6 


6 


70 ; 


4.3 




.50 


4.1 


2 


1.0 


6.2! 3 


3.0 


7.3 


i 


20 


35 


14 


83 


70 


6 


6 


70 


4.3 




.50 


4.1 


2 


1.0 


6.2 


2 


3.0 


9.1 


1 


25 


30 


12 


83 


60 


6 


6 


60 ! 


4.4 




.60^ 


5.1 


2 


1.5 


6.1 


2 


4.5 


14.0 


2 


30 


35 


12 


100 


50 


6 


6 


50 


4.9 




.80 


5.1 


2 


2.0 


5.7 


2 


5.5 


14.0 


2 


35 


aO 


10 


104 


40 


6 


6 


40 


5.0 




1.0 


5.1 


2 


2.5 


5.4 


2 


6.5 


14.1 


2 


40 


SO 


8 


83 


40 


6 


6 


40 


5.0 




1.0 


5.1 


2 


2.5 


6.6 


2 


8.0 


14.0 


3 


50 


60 


8 


110 


30 


6 


6j 30 


4.8 




1.3 


5.6 


2 i 3.5 


6.0 


2 


10.0 


13.5 


2 


60 



Above drafts allow for contraction and waste. 

Contraction in spinning is variable according to stock and twist. Allowances 
above are for average warp twist. In spinning filling the drafts should be 3 to 5 
tenths less than in table. 

This table is made to illustrate the variations that can be made within the 
limits of practical drafts on each machine. The range of draft for each machine 
makes thecombinations that are practicable well nigh infinite. At each separate 
process difierent superintendents might differ in opinion. Some might prefer more 
draft at tlie card and less at the slubber, or more at the spinning and less in the 
roving. It becomes evident, therefore, that the table can onlj' be worked out for 
exhibiting to students and apprentices what is the ordinary range in practice. 
Experienced superintendents will in most cases have preferences of their own, 
based upon their practice. 



.307 

IReclpes, 

STAMPING INK. 

I Pound Ultra Marine. 

1 Pound GiUTi Arabic. 

2 Quarts Water. 

Dissolve Gum Arabic in the water. Let stand 24 hours. 
Stir in the Ultramarine, and boil slowly 15 to 20 minutes. 
Use when cold. This amount will stamp 300 to 400 pieces 
of cloth. 

Stamping ink may be bought ready for use; but it is 
more expensive than the above. 

VARNISH FOR LEATHER COVERED TOP ROLLS. 

I Pound Best Pulverized Glue. 
I Quart Acetic Acid. 

1 Quart Water. 

1} Pound Venetian Red. 

"2 Ounce Oil of Origanum or Oil of Cloves. 

In place of i quart each Acetic Acid and water, 2 quarts 
good vinegar may be used. 

SIZE niXTURE FOR SLASHER. 

For sizing i set of beams. 1,500 to 2,000 pounds medium 
numbers t6 to 30, for sheetings. It adds 3 to 6 per cent, 
to weight of warp. 

100 Pounds Starch. 

160 Gals. Water. 

20 to 40 Pounds Sizene (according to make.) 

2 to 10 Pounds Tallow (according to results.) 



308 

To Find the "hank" of roving. 

Divide lOO by the weight in grains of 12 yards. 
To Find the number of yarn. 

Divide 1,000 by the \\ eight in grains of 120 yards. 

To Find circumference of a roll. 

Multiply diameter by 3.1416 or, for an approximation, 
3 1-7- 

To Find approximate production of Spinning and roving 
machinery. 

Multiply diameter of iront roll by the speed and divide 
by 16. Result is possible hanks per spindle in 11 hours, 
without allowance for ^:•cops. 

NOTE. — In all calculations with gears, the "driver" 
may for convenience be assumed to l^e at either end of the 
train, without regard to where the actual power is applied. 

To Find draft of spinning or roving frame. 

Consider gear on back roll the driver (i) multiply the 
diameter of front roll by all the drivers. (2) Multiply 
the diameter of back roll by all the drivens. Divide (i) 
by (2.) 

To Find draft constant on spinning or roving frame. 

Proceed as in last rule, leaving the draft gear out of the 
calculation. 

To Find twist on spinning frame. 

Consider gear on from roll the driver, (i) Multiply 
diameter tin cylinder ])y aU the drivers. (2) Multiply 
diameter of spindle whorl by all the drivens and by circum- 
ference of front roll. Divide (i) by (2.) 

To Find twist constant on spinning frame. 

Proceed as in last ru]% leaving twist gear out of the cal- 
culation. 



309 

To Find draft gear to use when changing from one number 
to another. 

Multiply number being- spun by draft gear in use. 
Divide by number to be spun. 

To find twist gear to use when changing from one num= 
ber to another. 

Multiply twist gear in use by the twist per inch in the 
stock being spun. Divide by twist per inch in the stock to 
be spun. 

Or multiply twist gear in use by square root of number 
being made. Divide by square root of number to be 
made. 

NOTE. — The rule novv' in common use is -as follows: 
"Multiply square of twist gear in use by number being- 
spun. Divide b)^ number to be spun. Extract square 
root of result." 

This involves the work of squaring a number and of tak- 
ing square root of a number. The rule in the text only 
involves looking up square roots of yarn (or roving) num- 
bers in the tables. 

To Find draft when a draft constant is known. 

Divide constant by dsaft gear. 

To Find draft gear to use when draft constant is known. 

Divide constant by dr:ih required. 

To Find twist when twist constant is known. 

Divide constant by tv/ist gear. 

To Find Twist gear to use when .twist constant is known. 

Divide constant by twist required. 

NOTE. — For exceptions to the rules about constants, 
see paragraph 70. 



310 



1ln^ex. 



Paragraph. 

APPENDIX, Page 295-309 
Automatic Looms 276 

Auxiliary Shaft 279 

BAGGING & TIES i 
Bales— Cotton i 

Cloth 353-356 

Ball Warp 378 

Bands 163 

Beamers Lease 372 

Beam Warper 206,384 

Beating up 248 

Bobbins 148 

Bobbin Lead 83 

Bout 373 

Box Looms 287-9 

Breaking Strengths.. .Appendix 
Brusher 327-341 

CAM — Harness, 258-9 
Pick 260 

Stop Motion 272 

Twills 280 

Cards 24.44 

Burnishing 33-4 

Calculations 36-40 

Clothing 26-8 

Flats 24,41 

General Data 43 

Grinding 29-34 

Revolving Top Flat 24 

vSetting 30 

Sliver 35 

Specifications 44 

Stripping 33 

Tables Appendix 

Waste 36 

Wellman 41 

Calender — Cloth 330-6 

Cast Ring Holder 166 

Chain Warping 367-8^ 

Cloth— Baling 353-6 

Calculations 407-12 

Construction 405-7 

Press 356-7 

Room 324-57 

Stamping 351 

Combination Builder 156 

Cone Winding 391-3 

Construction of Cloth 405-7 

Cop 188 

Cotton Bales 1-2 

Classification 3 

Cut Marker 227 



Paragraph. 

DAGGER Stop Motion 274 
Denn Warper 367-83 

Calculations 374-6 

Genera;l Data 380 

Production 380 

vSpecifications 383 

Designing Cloth 291-4 

Dobby . 282-4 

Double Carding 42 

Double Roving 399-400 

Draft Defined 5 

Range 396-8 

Rules i9,App. 

Drawing 45-64 

Bottom Rolls 49 

Calculations 56-60 

General Data 61-63 

Metallic Top Rolls 52 

Production Talkie . . . .Appendix 

Roll Setting 53 

Shell Rolls 51 

Specifications 64 

Stop Motions 47 

Top Rolls 50 

Drawing In 237 

Drawing In Draft 293 

Dust Room II 

Dyeing 239-44 

vShort Chain .... 239-40 

Long Chain 241-2 

Raw Stock 243-4 

EVENER— Railway Heads 67 
Lapper . . •. . . 13 

Equipment 413-17 

FEEDER for Opener 8 
Filling Bobbin 148 

Builder 154 

Stop Motion 272 

Twist 159 

Floor Space — See General Data 

Each Machine 

Flyer 82 

Flyer Lead 83 

Folder 342-50 

r^ RADES— Cotton 3 

HANKS and Numbers 74 80 
Definition 74-5 

To Find 76 



311 



Paragraph. 

Harness 317-23 

Cams 258 

Specifications 323 

Headstock, — Mule 191 

TNEQUALITIES of Yarn . . 175 
Ink for Stamping 352, App. 

JACK Roving 8 
Jacquard Loom 286 

IT" NOCK off Motion 211 

LAPPER 10-23 
Ivaying Out — ^Drawing. . 61 

Looms 302 

Mules 193 

Slubbers 136 

Spinning Frames 182 

Leases 369-73 

Letting Off 249,270 

Lever Screw 184 

Long Chain Dyeing 241-2 

Lifting Plans 293 

Looms 245-303 

Automatic 276 

Box 287-g 

Calculations 295 

Dobby 282-4 

General Data 301-2 

Harness 317-23 

Jacquard 286 

Laying Out 302 

Magazine 276 

Northrop 276 

Plain 252-66 

Production 299 

Specifications 303 

Speeds 253 

Stop Motions 272 

Strapping 305 

Supplies 304-23 

Swells 257 

Twill 278 

MAGAZINE Looms 276 
Mixing 6 

Mule Spinning 186-96 

Cop 188 

Cost of Labor 195 

General Data 194 

Headstock 191 

Laying Out 193 

Production 195 

Specification 196 



Paragraph. 

NORTHROP Loom 276 
Numbers Definition. ... 74 

To Find 76, App. 

Tables Appendix. 



o 



RGANIZATlONand 

Equipment 394-417 

Table Appendix. 



PATTERN Chain 282 
Pegging Plan 293 

Pick Gear 296 

Pick Cam 260 

Pickers 6-23 

Calculation 18-20 

General Data 22 

Loom 261 

Specifications 23 

Power — See Gen. Data — Each 

Machine. 
Preparation of Yarn for Mar- 
ket . . 358-93 

For Weaving 197-243 

Price — See Gen. Data — Each 
Machine. 
Processes — Tabulated 4 

RAILWAY Heads 65-73 
Calculations 69-71 

Evener , 67 

General Data 72 

Specifications 73 

Range of Drafts 396-8 

Raw Stock Dyeing 243-4 

Recipes ... Appendix 

Reeds 308-16 

Reedy Cloth 267 

Reel 385-90 

Table Appendix 

Ring Holders 166-7 

Setting 168 

Sizes 173-4, Appendix 

Travelers 171 

Twister 359-65 

Ring Spinning 147-85 

Roving 81-146 

Calculations 95-135 

Contraction 105 

Differential 116 

Gauge 137 

Gearing 85-94 

General Data 136-145 

Jack 82 

Long Boss Roll 137 

Reel 77 

Short Boss Roll 138 

Short Methods 135 



312 



Paragraph. 

Summary of Calculations. . 133 

Tables Appendix 

Tension 134 

Rules Appendix 

SAMPLE Organization. .401,416 
Scutcher 8 

Self Feeder 9 

Separator 169 

Sewing Machine 325-6 

Shearer 327-41 

Shedding 246,258 

Short Chain Dyeing 239-40 

Short Methods 135 

Short Rules Appendix 

Shuttles 263-5,275,306 

Shuttle Marks 264 

Singles Defined 47 

Single Roving 399-400 

Size Kettle 224 

Size of Rings. . . .173-4, Appendix 

Size Recipe Appendix 

Slasher 221-36 

Calculations 234 

Cut Marker 227 

General Data 235 

Production 234 

Specifications 236 

Waste 232 

Slow Motions 214,226 

Slubbing and Roving 81-146 

Tables Appendix 

(See Roving) 

Speed Tables Appendix 

Spindles 162 

Spinning — Bands 163 

Calculations 178-81 

General Data 182-4 

Laying Out 182 

Mule 186-96 

Rings 165-8 

Specifications 185 

Speed Tables Appendix 

Table Appendix 

Spooler 198-205 

Calculations 202 

General Data 203-4 

Production Table. .. .Appendix 

Specifications 205 

Square Root Tables. . . .Appendix 

Stamping Cloth 351 

Stamping Ink 352, App. 

Standard Twists 158-9, App. 



Paragraph. 

Starch Kettle 225 

Stationary Flat card 44 

Stop Motions 209-10,272,371 

Strapping — Loom 307 

Supplies — Loom 304-23 

TABLES Appendix 
Take-up. Motion 250 

Tape Selvage 281 

Temples 307 

Thread Lease 370 

Ties — Bundling . . 7 

Tie Cutter 7 

Travelers 171.362, Appendix 

Tube Winding 391-3 

Twills 27S-80 

Twist — Standard. . . 159, Appendix 

Tables Appendix 

Variations 175-96 

Twister Rings 361 

Twisting 359-65 

Two-ey Cloth 267 

Two Ply Contraction 403-4 

Extension 403 4 

Tables Appendix 

VAPOR Cylinders 329 
Vertical Ring 361 

WARP Bobbin 148 
Builder 153 

Chain 367-83 

Twist 159 

Warper — Beam 206 

Calculations 216 

Denn 367-83 

General Data 219 

Knock Off Motion . 211 

Production 216, App. 

Slow Motion 214 

Specifications 220 

Stop Motion 209-10 

Waste — Card 36 

Picker 6 

Re-Working 6 

Slasher 232 

Weaving 245-323 

Weight— See Gen Data— Each 
Machine. 

Wellman Card 41 



Y 



ARN — Measuring Reel . . 78 
Yarn — Tables for Number- 
ing Appendix 



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